The Old Man and the Sea


He was an old man who fished alone in a skiff in the Gulf Stream and he
had gone eighty-four days now without taking a fish. In the first
forty days a boy had been with him. But after forty days without a
fish the boy’s parents had told him that the old man was now definitely
and finally salao, which is the worst form of unlucky, and the boy
had gone at their orders in another boat which caught three good fish
the first week. It made the boy sad to see the old man come in each
day with his skiff empty and he always went down to help him carry
either the coiled lines or the gaff and harpoon and the sail that was
furled around the mast. The sail was patched with flour sacks and,
furled, it looked like the flag of permanent defeat.

The old man was thin and gaunt with deep wrinkles in the back of his
neck. The brown blotches of the benevolent skin cancer the sun brings
from its reflection on the tropic sea were on his cheeks. The blotches
ran well down the sides of his face and his hands had the deep-creased
scars from handling heavy fish on the cords. But none of these scars
were fresh. They were as old as erosions in a fishless desert.

Everything about him was old except his eyes and they were the same
color as the sea and were cheerful and undefeated.

“Santiago,” the boy said to him as they climbed the bank from where the
skiff was hauled up. “I could go with you again. We’ve made some

The old man had taught the boy to fish and the boy loved him.

“No,” the old man said. “You’re with a lucky boat. Stay with them.”

“But remember how you went eighty-seven days without fish and then we
caught big ones every day for three weeks.”

“I remember,” the old man said. “I know you did not leave me because
you doubted.”

“It was papa made me leave. I am a boy and I must obey him.”

“I know,” the old man said. “It is quite normal.”

“He hasn’t much faith.”

“No,” the old man said. “But we have. Haven’t we?”

“Yes,” the boy said. “Can I offer you a beer on the Terrace and then
we’ll take the stuff home.”

“Why not?” the old man said. “Between fishermen.”

They sat on the Terrace and many of the fishermen made fun of the old
man and he was not angry. Others, of the older fishermen, looked at
him and were sad. But they did not show it and they spoke politely
about the current and the depths they had drifted their lines at and
the steady good weather and of what they had seen. The successful
fishermen of that day were already in and had butchered their marlin
out and carried them laid full length across two planks, with two men
staggering at the end of each plank, to the fish house where they
waited for the ice truck to carry them to the market in Havana. Those
who had caught sharks had taken them to the shark factory on the other
side of the cove where they were hoisted on a block and tackle, their
livers removed, their fins cut off and their hides skinned out and
their flesh cut into strips for salting.

When the wind was in the east a smell came across the harbour from the
shark factory; but today there was only the faint edge of the odour
because the wind had backed into the north and then dropped off and it
was pleasant and sunny on the Terrace.

“Santiago,” the boy said.

“Yes,” the old man said. He was holding his glass and thinking of many
years ago.

“Can I go out to get sardines for you for tomorrow?”

“No. Go and play baseball. I can still row and Rogelio will throw the

“I would like to go. If I cannot fish with you, I would like to serve
in some way.”

“You bought me a beer,” the old man said. “You are already a man.”

“How old was I when you first took me in a boat?”

“Five and you nearly were killed when I brought the fish in too green
and he nearly tore the boat to pieces. Can you remember?”

“I can remember the tail slapping and banging and the thwart breaking
and the noise of the clubbing. I can remember you throwing me into the
bow where the wet coiled lines were and feeling the whole boat shiver
and the noise of you clubbing him like chopping a tree down and the
sweet blood smell all over me.”

“Can you really remember that or did I just tell it to you?”

“I remember everything from when we first went together.”

The old man looked at him with his sun-burned, confident loving eyes.

“If you were my boy I’d take you out and gamble,” he said. “But you
are your father’s and your mother’s and you are in a lucky boat.”

“May I get the sardines? I know where I can get four baits too.”

“I have mine left from today. I put them in salt in the box.”

“Let me get four fresh ones.”

“One,” the old man said. His hope and his confidence had never gone.
But now they were freshening as when the breeze rises.

“Two,” the boy said.

“Two,” the old man agreed. “You didn’t steal them?”

“I would,” the boy said. “But I bought these.”

“Thank you,” the old man said. He was too simple to wonder when he had
attained humility. But he knew he had attained it and he knew it was
not disgraceful and it carried no loss of true pride.

“Tomorrow is going to be a good day with this current,” he said.

“Where are you going?” the boy asked.

“Far out to come in when the wind shifts. I want to be out before it
is light.”

“I’ll try to get him to work far out,” the boy said. “Then if you hook
something truly big we can come to your aid.”

“He does not like to work too far out.”

“No,” the boy said. “But I will see something that he cannot see such
as a bird working and get him to come out after dolphin.”

“Are his eyes that bad?”

“He is almost blind.”

“It is strange,” the old man said. “He never went turtle-ing. That is
what kills the eyes.”

“But you went turtle-ing for years off the Mosquito Coast and your eyes
are good.”

“I am a strange old man.”

“But are you strong enough now for a truly big fish?”

“I think so. And there are many tricks.”

“Let us take the stuff home,” the boy said. “So I can get the cast net
and go after the sardines.”

They picked up the gear from the boat. The old man carried the mast on
his shoulder and the boy carried the wooden box with the coiled,
hard-braided brown lines, the gaff and the harpoon with its shaft. The
box with the baits was under the stern of the skiff along with the club
that was used to subdue the big fish when they were brought alongside.
No one would steal from the old man but it was better to take the sail
and the heavy lines home as the dew was bad for them and, though he was
quite sure no local people would steal from him, the old man thought
that a gaff and a harpoon were needless temptations to leave in a boat.

They walked up the road together to the old man’s shack and went in
through its open door. The old man leaned the mast with its wrapped
sail against the wall and the boy put the box and the other gear beside
it. The mast was nearly as long as the one room of the shack. The
shack was made of the tough bud-shields of the royal palm which are
called guano and in it there was a bed, a table, one chair, and a
place on the dirt floor to cook with charcoal. On the brown walls of
the flattened, overlapping leaves of the sturdy fibered guano there
was a picture in color of the Sacred Heart of Jesus and another of the
Virgin of Cobre. These were relics of his wife. Once there had been a
tinted photograph of his wife on the wall but he had taken it down
because it made him too lonely to see it and it was on the shelf in the
corner under his clean shirt.

“What do you have to eat?” the boy asked.

“A pot of yellow rice with fish. Do you want some?”

“No. I will eat at home. Do you want me to make the fire?”

“No. I will make it later on. Or I may eat the rice cold.”

“May I take the cast net?”

“Of course.”

There was no cast net and the boy remembered when they had sold it.
But they went through this fiction every day. There was no pot of
yellow rice and fish and the boy knew this too.

“Eighty-five is a lucky number,” the old man said. “How would you like
to see me bring one in that dressed out over a thousand pounds?”

“I’ll get the cast net and go for sardines. Will you sit in the sun in
the doorway?”

“Yes. I have yesterday’s paper and I will read the baseball.”

The boy did not know whether yesterday’s paper was a fiction too. But
the old man brought it out from under the bed.

“Perico gave it to me at the bodega,” he explained.

“I’ll be back when I have the sardines. I’ll keep yours and mine
together on ice and we can share them in the morning. When I come back
you can tell me about the baseball.”

“The Yankees cannot lose.”

“But I fear the Indians of Cleveland.”

“Have faith in the Yankees my son. Think of the great DiMaggio.”

“I fear both the Tigers of Detroit and the Indians of Cleveland.”

“Be careful or you will fear even the Reds of Cincinnati and the White
Sox of Chicago.”

“You study it and tell me when I come back.”

“Do you think we should buy a terminal of the lottery with an
eighty-five? Tomorrow is the eighty-fifth day.”

“We can do that,” the boy said. “But what about the eighty-seven of
your great record?”

“It could not happen twice. Do you think you can find an eighty-five?”

“I can order one.”

“One sheet. That’s two dollars and a half. Who can we borrow that

“That’s easy. I can always borrow two dollars and a half.”

“I think perhaps I can too. But I try not to borrow. First you
borrow. Then you beg.”

“Keep warm old man,” the boy said. “Remember we are in September.”

“The month when the great fish come,” the old man said. “Anyone can be
a fisherman in May.”

“I go now for the sardines,” the boy said.

When the boy came back the old man was asleep in the chair and the sun
was down. The boy took the old army blanket off the bed and spread it
over the back of the chair and over the old man’s shoulders. They were
strange shoulders, still powerful although very old, and the neck was
still strong too and the creases did not show so much when the old man
was asleep and his head fallen forward. His shirt had been patched so
many times that it was like the sail and the patches were faded to many
different shades by the sun. The old man’s head was very old though
and with his eyes closed there was no life in his face. The newspaper
lay across his knees and the weight of his arm held it there in the
evening breeze. He was barefooted.

The boy left him there and when he came back the old man was still

“Wake up old man,” the boy said and put his hand on one of the old
man’s knees.

The old man opened his eyes and for a moment he was coming back from a
long way away. Then he smiled.

“What have you got?” he asked.

“Supper,” said the boy. “We’re going to have supper.”

“I’m not very hungry.”

“Come on and eat. You can’t fish and not eat.”

“I have,” the old man said getting up and taking the newspaper and
folding it. Then he started to fold the blanket.

“Keep the blanket around you,” the boy said. “You’ll not fish without
eating while I’m alive.”

“Then live a long time and take care of yourself,” the old man said.
“What are we eating?”

“Black beans and rice, fried bananas, and some stew.”

The boy had brought them in a two-decker metal container from the
Terrace. The two sets of knives and forks and spoons were in his
pocket with a paper napkin wrapped around each set.

“Who gave this to you?”

“Martin. The owner.”

“I must thank him.”

“I thanked him already,” the boy said. “You don’t need to thank him.”

“I’ll give him the belly meat of a big fish,” the old man said. “Has
he done this for us more than once?”

“I think so.”

“I must give him something more than the belly meat then. He is very
thoughtful for us.”

“He sent two beers.”

“I like the beer in cans best.”

“I know. But this is in bottles, Hatuey beer, and I take back the

“That’s very kind of you,” the old man said. “Should we eat?”

“I’ve been asking you to,” the boy told him gently. “I have not wished
to open the container until you were ready.”

“I’m ready now,” the old man said. “I only needed time to wash.”

Where did you wash? the boy thought. The village water supply was two
streets down the road. I must have water here for him, the boy
thought, and soap and a good towel. Why am I so thoughtless? I must
get him another shirt and a jacket for the winter and some sort of
shoes and another blanket.

“Your stew is excellent,” the old man said.

“Tell me about the baseball,” the boy asked him.

“In the American League it is the Yankees as I said,” the old man said

“They lost today,” the boy told him.

“That means nothing. The great DiMaggio is himself again.”

“They have other men on the team.”

“Naturally. But he makes the difference. In the other league, between
Brooklyn and Philadelphia I must take Brooklyn. But then I think of
Dick Sisler and those great drives in the old park.”

“There was nothing ever like them. He hits the longest ball I have
ever seen.”

“Do you remember when he used to come to the Terrace? I wanted to take
him fishing but I was too timid to ask him. Then I asked you to ask
him and you were too timid.”

“I know. It was a great mistake. He might have gone with us. Then we
would have that for all of our lives.”

“I would like to take the great DiMaggio fishing,” the old man said.
“They say his father was a fisherman. Maybe he was as poor as we are
and would understand.”

“The great Sisler’s father was never poor and he, the father, was
playing in the big leagues when he was my age.”

“When I was your age I was before the mast on a square rigged ship that
ran to Africa and I have seen lions on the beaches in the evening.”

“I know. You told me.”

“Should we talk about Africa or about baseball?”

“Baseball I think,” the boy said. “Tell me about the great John J.
McGraw.” He said Jota for J.

“He used to come to the Terrace sometimes too in the older days. But
he was rough and harsh-spoken and difficult when he was drinking. His
mind was on horses as well as baseball. At least he carried lists of
horses at all times in his pocket and frequently spoke the names of
horses on the telephone.”

“He was a great manager,” the boy said. “My father thinks he was the

“Because he came here the most times,” the old man said. “If Durocher
had continued to come here each year your father would think him the
greatest manager.”

“Who is the greatest manager, really, Luque or Mike Gonzalez?”

“I think they are equal.”

“And the best fisherman is you.”

“No. I know others better.”

Qué va,” the boy said. “There are many good fishermen and some
great ones. But there is only you.”

“Thank you. You make me happy. I hope no fish will come along so
great that he will prove us wrong.”

“There is no such fish if you are still strong as you say.”

“I may not be as strong as I think,” the old man said. “But I know
many tricks and I have resolution.”

“You ought to go to bed now so that you will be fresh in the morning.
I will take the things back to the Terrace.”

“Good night then. I will wake you in the morning.”

“You’re my alarm clock,” the boy said.

“Age is my alarm clock,” the old man said. “Why do old men wake so
early? Is it to have one longer day?”

“I don’t know,” the boy said. “All I know is that young boys sleep
late and hard.”

“I can remember it,” the old man said. “I’ll waken you in time.”

“I do not like for him to waken me. It is as though I were inferior.”

“I know.”

“Sleep well, old man.”

The boy went out. They had eaten with no light on the table and the
old man took off his trousers and went to bed in the dark. He rolled
his trousers up to make a pillow, putting the newspaper inside them.
He rolled himself in the blanket and slept on the other old newspapers
that covered the springs of the bed.

He was asleep in a short time and he dreamed of Africa when he was a
boy and the long golden beaches and the white beaches, so white they
hurt your eyes, and the high capes and the great brown mountains. He
lived along that coast now every night and in his dreams he heard the
surf roar and saw the native boats come riding through it. He smelled
the tar and oakum of the deck as he slept and he smelled the smell of
Africa that the land breeze brought at morning.

Usually when he smelled the land breeze he woke up and dressed to go
and wake the boy. But tonight the smell of the land breeze came very
early and he knew it was too early in his dream and went on dreaming to
see the white peaks of the Islands rising from the sea and then he
dreamed of the different harbours and roadsteads of the Canary Islands.

He no longer dreamed of storms, nor of women, nor of great occurrences,
nor of great fish, nor fights, nor contests of strength, nor of his
wife. He only dreamed of places now and of the lions on the beach.
They played like young cats in the dusk and he loved them as he loved
the boy. He never dreamed about the boy. He simply woke, looked out
the open door at the moon and unrolled his trousers and put them on.
He urinated outside the shack and then went up the road to wake the
boy. He was shivering with the morning cold. But he knew he would
shiver himself warm and that soon he would be rowing.

The door of the house where the boy lived was unlocked and he opened it
and walked in quietly with his bare feet. The boy was asleep on a cot
in the first room and the old man could see him clearly with the light
that came in from the dying moon. He took hold of one foot gently and
held it until the boy woke and turned and looked at him. The old man
nodded and the boy took his trousers from the chair by the bed and,
sitting on the bed, pulled them on.

The old man went out the door and the boy came after him. He was
sleepy and the old man put his arm across his shoulders and said, “I am

Qué va,” the boy said. “It is what a man must do.”

They walked down the road to the old man’s shack and all along the
road, in the dark, barefoot men were moving, carrying the masts of
their boats.

When they reached the old man’s shack the boy took the rolls of line in
the basket and the harpoon and gaff and the old man carried the mast
with the furled sail on his shoulder.

“Do you want coffee?” the boy asked.

“We’ll put the gear in the boat and then get some.”

They had coffee from condensed milk cans at an early morning place that
served fishermen.

“How did you sleep old man?” the boy asked. He was waking up now
although it was still hard for him to leave his sleep.

“Very well, Manolin,” the old man said. “I feel confident today.”

“So do I,” the boy said. “Now I must get your sardines and mine and
your fresh baits. He brings our gear himself. He never wants anyone
to carry anything.”

“We’re different,” the old man said. “I let you carry things when you
were five years old.”

“I know it,” the boy said. “I’ll be right back. Have another coffee.
We have credit here.”

He walked off, bare-footed on the coral rocks, to the ice house where
the baits were stored.

The old man drank his coffee slowly. It was all he would have all day
and he knew that he should take it. For a long time now eating had
bored him and he never carried a lunch. He had a bottle of water in
the bow of the skiff and that was all he needed for the day.

The boy was back now with the sardines and the two baits wrapped in a
newspaper and they went down the trail to the skiff, feeling the
pebbled sand under their feet, and lifted the skiff and slid her into
the water.

“Good luck old man.”

“Good luck,” the old man said. He fitted the rope lashings of the oars
onto the thole pins and, leaning forward against the thrust of the
blades in the water, he began to row out of the harbour in the dark.
There were other boats from the other beaches going out to sea and the
old man heard the dip and push of their oars even though he could not
see them now the moon was below the hills.

Sometimes someone would speak in a boat. But most of the boats were
silent except for the dip of the oars. They spread apart after they
were out of the mouth of the harbour and each one headed for the part
of the ocean where he hoped to find fish. The old man knew he was
going far out and he left the smell of the land behind and rowed out
into the clean early morning smell of the ocean. He saw the
phosphorescence of the Gulf weed in the water as he rowed over the part
of the ocean that the fishermen called the great well because there was
a sudden deep of seven hundred fathoms where all sorts of fish
congregated because of the swirl the current made against the steep
walls of the floor of the ocean. Here there were concentrations of
shrimp and bait fish and sometimes schools of squid in the deepest
holes and these rose close to the surface at night where all the
wandering fish fed on them.

In the dark the old man could feel the morning coming and as he rowed
he heard the trembling sound as flying fish left the water and the
hissing that their stiff set wings made as they soared away in the
darkness. He was very fond of flying fish as they were his principal
friends on the ocean. He was sorry for the birds, especially the small
delicate dark terns that were always flying and looking and almost
never finding, and he thought, “The birds have a harder life than we do
except for the robber birds and the heavy strong ones. Why did they
make birds so delicate and fine as those sea swallows when the ocean
can be so cruel? She is kind and very beautiful. But she can be so
cruel and it comes so suddenly and such birds that fly, dipping and
hunting, with their small sad voices are made too delicately for the

He always thought of the sea as la mar which is what people call her
in Spanish when they love her. Sometimes those who love her say bad
things of her but they are always said as though she were a woman.
Some of the younger fishermen, those who used buoys as floats for their
lines and had motorboats, bought when the shark livers had brought much
money, spoke of her as el mar which is masculine. They spoke of her
as a contestant or a place or even an enemy. But the old man always
thought of her as feminine and as something that gave or withheld great
favours, and if she did wild or wicked things it was because she could
not help them. The moon affects her as it does a woman, he thought.

He was rowing steadily and it was no effort for him since he kept well
within his speed and the surface of the ocean was flat except for the
occasional swirls of the current. He was letting the current do a
third of the work and as it started to be light he saw he was already
further out than he had hoped to be at this hour.

I worked the deep wells for a week and did nothing, he thought. Today
I’ll work out where the schools of bonita and albacore are and maybe
there will be a big one with them.

Before it was really light he had his baits out and was drifting with
the current. One bait was down forty fathoms. The second was at
seventy-five and the third and fourth were down in the blue water at
one hundred and one hundred and twenty-five fathoms. Each bait hung
head down with the shank of the hook inside the bait fish, tied and
sewed solid and all the projecting part of the hook, the curve and the
point, was covered with fresh sardines. Each sardine was hooked
through both eyes so that they made a half-garland on the projecting
steel. There was no part of the hook that a great fish could feel
which was not sweet smelling and good tasting.

The boy had given him two fresh small tunas, or albacores, which hung
on the two deepest lines like plummets and, on the others, he had a big
blue runner and a yellow jack that had been used before; but they were
in good condition still and had the excellent sardines to give them
scent and attractiveness. Each line, as thick around as a big pencil,
was looped onto a green-sapped stick so that any pull or touch on the
bait would make the stick dip and each line had two forty-fathom coils
which could be made fast to the other spare coils so that, if it were
necessary, a fish could take out over three hundred fathoms of line.

Now the man watched the dip of the three sticks over the side of the
skiff and rowed gently to keep the lines straight up and down and at
their proper depths. It was quite light and any moment now the sun
would rise.

The sun rose thinly from the sea and the old man could see the other
boats, low on the water and well in toward the shore, spread out across
the current. Then the sun was brighter and the glare came on the water
and then, as it rose clear, the flat sea sent it back at his eyes so
that it hurt sharply and he rowed without looking into it. He looked
down into the water and watched the lines that went straight down into
the dark of the water. He kept them straighter than anyone did, so
that at each level in the darkness of the stream there would be a bait
waiting exactly where he wished it to be for any fish that swam there.
Others let them drift with the current and sometimes they were at sixty
fathoms when the fishermen thought they were at a hundred.

But, he thought, I keep them with precision. Only I have no luck any
more. But who knows? Maybe today. Every day is a new day. It is
better to be lucky. But I would rather be exact. Then when luck comes
you are ready.

The sun was two hours higher now and it did not hurt his eyes so much
to look into the east. There were only three boats in sight now and
they showed very low and far inshore.

All my life the early sun has hurt my eyes, he thought. Yet they are
still good. In the evening I can look straight into it without getting
the blackness. It has more force in the evening too. But in the
morning it is painful.

Just then he saw a man-of-war bird with his long black wings circling
in the sky ahead of him. He made a quick drop, slanting down on his
back-swept wings, and then circled again.

“He’s got something,” the old man said aloud. “He’s not just looking.”

He rowed slowly and steadily toward where the bird was circling. He
did not hurry and he kept his lines straight up and down. But he
crowded the current a little so that he was still fishing correctly
though faster than he would have fished if he was not trying to use the

The bird went higher in the air and circled again, his wings
motionless. Then he dove suddenly and the old man saw flying fish
spurt out of the water and sail desperately over the surface.

“Dolphin,” the old man said aloud. “Big dolphin.”

He shipped his oars and brought a small line from under the bow. It
had a wire leader and a medium-sized hook and he baited it with one of
the sardines. He let it go over the side and then made it fast to a
ring bolt in the stern. Then he baited another line and left it coiled
in the shade of the bow. He went back to rowing and to watching the
long-winged black bird who was working, now, low over the water.

As he watched the bird dipped again slanting his wings for the dive and
then swinging them wildly and ineffectually as he followed the flying
fish. The old man could see the slight bulge in the water that the big
dolphin raised as they followed the escaping fish. The dolphin were
cutting through the water below the flight of the fish and would be in
the water, driving at speed, when the fish dropped. It is a big school
of dolphin, he thought. They are wide spread and the flying fish have
little chance. The bird has no chance. The flying fish are too big
for him and they go too fast.

He watched the flying fish burst out again and again and the
ineffectual movements of the bird. That school has gotten away from
me, he thought. They are moving out too fast and too far. But perhaps
I will pick up a stray and perhaps my big fish is around them. My big
fish must be somewhere.

The clouds over the land now rose like mountains and the coast was only
a long green line with the gray blue hills behind it. The water was a
dark blue now, so dark that it was almost purple. As he looked down
into it he saw the red sifting of the plankton in the dark water and
the strange light the sun made now. He watched his lines to see them
go straight down out of sight into the water and he was happy to see so
much plankton because it meant fish. The strange light the sun made in
the water, now that the sun was higher, meant good weather and so did
the shape of the clouds over the land. But the bird was almost out of
sight now and nothing showed on the surface of the water but some
patches of yellow, sun-bleached Sargasso weed and the purple,
formalized, iridescent, gelatinous bladder of a Portuguese man-of-war
floating close beside the boat. It turned on its side and then righted
itself. It floated cheerfully as a bubble with its long deadly purple
filaments trailing a yard behind it in the water.

Agua mala,” the man said. “You whore.”

From where he swung lightly against his oars he looked down into the
water and saw the tiny fish that were coloured like the trailing
filaments and swam between them and under the small shade the bubble
made as it drifted. They were immune to its poison. But men were not
and when some of the filaments would catch on a line and rest there
slimy and purple while the old man was working a fish, he would have
welts and sores on his arms and hands of the sort that poison ivy or
poison oak can give. But these poisonings from the agua mala came
quickly and struck like a whiplash.

The iridescent bubbles were beautiful. But they were the falsest thing
in the sea and the old man loved to see the big sea turtles eating
them. The turtles saw them, approached them from the front, then shut
their eyes so they were completely carapaced and ate them filaments and
all. The old man loved to see the turtles eat them and he loved to
walk on them on the beach after a storm and hear them pop when he
stepped on them with the horny soles of his feet.

He loved green turtles and hawks-bills with their elegance and speed
and their great value and he had a friendly contempt for the huge,
stupid loggerheads, yellow in their armour-plating, strange in their
love-making, and happily eating the Portuguese men-of-war with their
eyes shut.

He had no mysticism about turtles although he had gone in turtle boats
for many years. He was sorry for them all, even the great trunk backs
that were as long as the skiff and weighed a ton. Most people are
heartless about turtles because a turtle’s heart will beat for hours
after he has been cut up and butchered. But the old man thought, I
have such a heart too and my feet and hands are like theirs. He ate
the white eggs to give himself strength. He ate them all through May
to be strong in September and October for the truly big fish.

He also drank a cup of shark liver oil each day from the big drum in
the shack where many of the fishermen kept their gear. It was there
for all fishermen who wanted it. Most fishermen hated the taste. But
it was no worse than getting up at the hours that they rose and it was
very good against all colds and grippes and it was good for the eyes.

Now the old man looked up and saw that the bird was circling again.

“He’s found fish,” he said aloud. No flying fish broke the surface and
there was no scattering of bait fish. But as the old man watched, a
small tuna rose in the air, turned and dropped head first into the
water. The tuna shone silver in the sun and after he had dropped back
into the water another and another rose and they were jumping in all
directions, churning the water and leaping in long jumps after the
bait. They were circling it and driving it.

If they don’t travel too fast I will get into them, the old man
thought, and he watched the school working the water white and the bird
now dropping and dipping into the bait fish that were forced to the
surface in their panic.

“The bird is a great help,” the old man said. Just then the stern line
came taut under his foot, where he had kept a loop of the line, and he
dropped his oars and felt the weight of the small tuna’s shivering pull
as he held the line firm and commenced to haul it in. The shivering
increased as he pulled in and he could see the blue back of the fish in
the water and the gold of his sides before he swung him over the side
and into the boat. He lay in the stern in the sun, compact and bullet
shaped, his big, unintelligent eyes staring as he thumped his life out
against the planking of the boat with the quick shivering strokes of
his neat, fast-moving tail. The old man hit him on the head for
kindness and kicked him, his body still shuddering, under the shade of
the stern.

“Albacore,” he said aloud. “He’ll make a beautiful bait. He’ll weigh
ten pounds.”

He did not remember when he had first started to talk aloud when he was
by himself. He had sung when he was by himself in the old days and he
had sung at night sometimes when he was alone steering on his watch in
the smacks or in the turtle boats. He had probably started to talk
aloud, when alone, when the boy had left. But he did not remember.
When he and the boy fished together they usually spoke only when it was
necessary. They talked at night or when they were storm-bound by bad
weather. It was considered a virtue not to talk unnecessarily at sea
and the old man had always considered it so and respected it. But now
he said his thoughts aloud many times since there was no one that they
could annoy.

“If the others heard me talking out loud they would think that I am
crazy,” he said aloud. “But since I am not crazy, I do not care. And
the rich have radios to talk to them in their boats and to bring them
the baseball.”

Now is no time to think of baseball, he thought. Now is the time to
think of only one thing. That which I was born for. There might be a
big one around that school, he thought. I picked up only a straggler
from the albacore that were feeding. But they are working far out and
fast. Everything that shows on the surface today travels very fast and
to the north-east. Can that be the time of day? Or is it some sign of
weather that I do not know?

He could not see the green of the shore now but only the tops of the
blue hills that showed white as though they were snow-capped and the
clouds that looked like high snow mountains above them. The sea was
very dark and the light made prisms in the water. The myriad flecks of
the plankton were annulled now by the high sun and it was only the
great deep prisms in the blue water that the old man saw now with his
lines going straight down into the water that was a mile deep.

The tuna, the fishermen called all the fish of that species tuna and
only distinguished among them by their proper names when they came to
sell them or to trade them for baits, were down again. The sun was hot
now and the old man felt it on the back of his neck and felt the sweat
trickle down his back as he rowed.

I could just drift, he thought, and sleep and put a bight of line
around my toe to wake me. But today is eighty-five days and I should
fish the day well.

Just then, watching his lines, he saw one of the projecting green
sticks dip sharply.

“Yes,” he said. “Yes,” and shipped his oars without bumping the boat.
He reached out for the line and held it softly between the thumb and
forefinger of his right hand. He felt no strain nor weight and he held
the line lightly. Then it came again. This time it was a tentative
pull, not solid nor heavy, and he knew exactly what it was. One
hundred fathoms down a marlin was eating the sardines that covered the
point and the shank of the hook where the hand-forged hook projected
from the head of the small tuna.

The old man held the line delicately, and softly, with his left hand,
unleashed it from the stick. Now he could let it run through his
fingers without the fish feeling any tension.

This far out, he must be huge in this month, he thought. Eat them,
fish. Eat them. Please eat them. How fresh they are and you down
there six hundred feet in that cold water in the dark. Make another
turn in the dark and come back and eat them.

He felt the light delicate pulling and then a harder pull when a
sardine’s head must have been more difficult to break from the hook.
Then there was nothing.

“Come on,” the old man said aloud. “Make another turn. Just smell
them. Aren’t they lovely? Eat them good now and then there is the
tuna. Hard and cold and lovely. Don’t be shy, fish. Eat them.”

He waited with the line between his thumb and his finger, watching it
and the other lines at the same time for the fish might have swum up or
down. Then came the same delicate pulling touch again.

“He’ll take it,” the old man said aloud. “God help him to take it.”

He did not take it though. He was gone and the old man felt nothing.

“He can’t have gone,” he said. “Christ knows he can’t have gone. He’s
making a turn. Maybe he has been hooked before and he remembers
something of it.”

Then he felt the gentle touch on the line and he was happy.

“It was only his turn,” he said. “He’ll take it.”

He was happy feeling the gentle pulling and then he felt something hard
and unbelievably heavy. It was the weight of the fish and he let the
line slip down, down, down, unrolling off the first of the two reserve
coils. As it went down, slipping lightly through the old man’s
fingers, he still could feel the great weight, though the pressure of
his thumb and finger were almost imperceptible.

“What a fish,” he said. “He has it sideways in his mouth now and he is
moving off with it.”

Then he will turn and swallow it, he thought. He did not say that
because he knew that if you said a good thing it might not happen. He
knew what a huge fish this was and he thought of him moving away in the
darkness with the tuna held crosswise in his mouth. At that moment he
felt him stop moving but the weight was still there. Then the weight
increased and he gave more line. He tightened the pressure of his
thumb and finger for a moment and the weight increased and was going
straight down.

“He’s taken it,” he said. “Now I’ll let him eat it well.”

He let the line slip through his fingers while he reached down with his
left hand and made fast the free end of the two reserve coils to the
loop of the two reserve coils of the next line. Now he was ready. He
had three forty-fathom coils of line in reserve now, as well as the
coil he was using.

“Eat it a little more,” he said. “Eat it well.”

Eat it so that the point of the hook goes into your heart and kills
you, he thought. Come up easy and let me put the harpoon into you.
All right. Are you ready? Have you been long enough at table?

“Now!” he said aloud and struck hard with both hands, gained a yard of
line and then struck again and again, swinging with each arm
alternately on the cord with all the strength of his arms and the
pivoted weight of his body.

Nothing happened. The fish just moved away slowly and the old man
could not raise him an inch. His line was strong and made for heavy
fish and he held it against his back until it was so taut that beads of
water were jumping from it. Then it began to make a slow hissing sound
in the water and he still held it, bracing himself against the thwart
and leaning back against the pull. The boat began to move slowly off
toward the North-West.

The fish moved steadily and they travelled slowly on the calm water.
The other baits were still in the water but there was nothing to be

“I wish I had the boy,” the old man said aloud. “I’m being towed by a
fish and I’m the towing bitt. I could make the line fast. But then he
could break it. I must hold him all I can and give him line when he
must have it. Thank God he is travelling and not going down.”

What I will do if he decides to go down, I don’t know. What I’ll do if
he sounds and dies I don’t know. But I’ll do something. There are
plenty of things I can do.

He held the line against his back and watched its slant in the water
and the skiff moving steadily to the North-West.

This will kill him, the old man thought. He can’t do this forever.
But four hours later the fish was still swimming steadily out to sea,
towing the skiff, and the old man was still braced solidly with the
line across his back.

“It was noon when I hooked him,” he said. “And I have never seen him.”

He had pushed his straw hat hard down on his head before he hooked the
fish and it was cutting his forehead. He was thirsty too and he got
down on his knees and, being careful not to jerk on the line, moved as
far into the bow as he could get and reached the water bottle with one
hand. He opened it and drank a little. Then he rested against the
bow. He rested sitting on the un-stepped mast and sail and tried not
to think but only to endure.

Then he looked behind him and saw that no land was visible. That makes
no difference, he thought. I can always come in on the glow from
Havana. There are two more hours before the sun sets and maybe he will
come up before that. If he doesn’t maybe he will come up with the
moon. If he does not do that maybe he will come up with the sunrise.
I have no cramps and I feel strong. It is he that has the hook in his
mouth. But what a fish to pull like that. He must have his mouth shut
tight on the wire. I wish I could see him. I wish I could see him
only once to know what I have against me.

The fish never changed his course nor his direction all that night as
far as the man could tell from watching the stars. It was cold after
the sun went down and the old man’s sweat dried cold on his back and
his arms and his old legs. During the day he had taken the sack that
covered the bait box and spread it in the sun to dry. After the sun
went down he tied it around his neck so that it hung down over his back
and he cautiously worked it down under the line that was across his
shoulders now. The sack cushioned the line and he had found a way of
leaning forward against the bow so that he was almost comfortable. The
position actually was only somewhat less intolerable; but he thought of
it as almost comfortable.

I can do nothing with him and he can do nothing with me, he thought.
Not as long as he keeps this up.

Once he stood up and urinated over the side of the skiff and looked at
the stars and checked his course. The line showed like a
phosphorescent streak in the water straight out from his shoulders.
They were moving more slowly now and the glow of Havana was not so
strong, so that he knew the current must be carrying them to the
eastward. If I lose the glare of Havana we must be going more to the
eastward, he thought. For if the fish’s course held true I must see it
for many more hours. I wonder how the baseball came out in the grand
leagues today, he thought. It would be wonderful to do this with a
radio. Then he thought, think of it always. Think of what you are
doing. You must do nothing stupid.

Then he said aloud, “I wish I had the boy. To help me and to see this.”

No one should be alone in their old age, he thought. But it is
unavoidable. I must remember to eat the tuna before he spoils in order
to keep strong. Remember, no matter how little you want to, that you
must eat him in the morning. Remember, he said to himself.

During the night two porpoise came around the boat and he could hear
them rolling and blowing. He could tell the difference between the
blowing noise the male made and the sighing blow of the female.

“They are good,” he said. “They play and make jokes and love one
another. They are our brothers like the flying fish.”

Then he began to pity the great fish that he had hooked. He is
wonderful and strange and who knows how old he is, he thought. Never
have I had such a strong fish nor one who acted so strangely. Perhaps
he is too wise to jump. He could ruin me by jumping or by a wild rush.
But perhaps he has been hooked many times before and he knows that this
is how he should make his fight. He cannot know that it is only one
man against him, nor that it is an old man. But what a great fish he
is and what he will bring in the market if the flesh is good. He took
the bait like a male and he pulls like a male and his fight has no
panic in it. I wonder if he has any plans or if he is just as
desperate as I am?

He remembered the time he had hooked one of a pair of marlin. The male
fish always let the female fish feed first and the hooked fish, the
female, made a wild, panic-stricken, despairing fight that soon
exhausted her, and all the time the male had stayed with her, crossing
the line and circling with her on the surface. He had stayed so close
that the old man was afraid he would cut the line with his tail which
was sharp as a scythe and almost of that size and shape. When the old
man had gaffed her and clubbed her, holding the rapier bill with its
sandpaper edge and clubbing her across the top of her head until her
colour turned to a colour almost like the backing of mirrors, and then,
with the boy’s aid, hoisted her aboard, the male fish had stayed by the
side of the boat. Then, while the old man was clearing the lines and
preparing the harpoon, the male fish jumped high into the air beside
the boat to see where the female was and then went down deep, his
lavender wings, that were his pectoral fins, spread wide and all his
wide lavender stripes showing. He was beautiful, the old man
remembered, and he had stayed.

That was the saddest thing I ever saw with them, the old man thought.
The boy was sad too and we begged her pardon and butchered her promptly.

“I wish the boy was here,” he said aloud and settled himself against
the rounded planks of the bow and felt the strength of the great fish
through the line he held across his shoulders moving steadily toward
whatever he had chosen.

When once, through my treachery, it had been necessary to him to make a
choice, the old man thought.

His choice had been to stay in the deep dark water far out beyond all
snares and traps and treacheries. My choice was to go there to find
him beyond all people. Beyond all people in the world. Now we are
joined together and have been since noon. And no one to help either
one of us.

Perhaps I should not have been a fisherman, he thought. But that was
the thing that I was born for. I must surely remember to eat the tuna
after it gets light.

Some time before daylight something took one of the baits that were
behind him. He heard the stick break and the line begin to rush out
over the gunwale of the skiff. In the darkness he loosened his sheath
knife and taking all the strain of the fish on his left shoulder he
leaned back and cut the line against the wood of the gunwale. Then he
cut the other line closest to him and in the dark made the loose ends
of the reserve coils fast. He worked skillfully with the one hand and
put his foot on the coils to hold them as he drew his knots tight. Now
he had six reserve coils of line. There were two from each bait he had
severed and the two from the bait the fish had taken and they were all

After it is light, he thought, I will work back to the forty-fathom
bait and cut it away too and link up the reserve coils. I will have
lost two hundred fathoms of good Catalan cordel and the hooks and
leaders. That can be replaced. But who replaces this fish if I hook
some fish and it cuts him off? I don’t know what that fish was that
took the bait just now. It could have been a marlin or a broadbill or
a shark. I never felt him. I had to get rid of him too fast.

Aloud he said, “I wish I had the boy.”

But you haven’t got the boy, he thought. You have only yourself and
you had better work back to the last line now, in the dark or not in
the dark, and cut it away and hook up the two reserve coils.

So he did it. It was difficult in the dark and once the fish made a
surge that pulled him down on his face and made a cut below his eye.
The blood ran down his cheek a little way. But it coagulated and dried
before it reached his chin and he worked his way back to the bow and
rested against the wood. He adjusted the sack and carefully worked the
line so that it came across a new part of his shoulders and, holding it
anchored with his shoulders, he carefully felt the pull of the fish and
then felt with his hand the progress of the skiff through the water.

I wonder what he made that lurch for, he thought. The wire must have
slipped on the great hill of his back. Certainly his back cannot feel
as badly as mine does. But he cannot pull this skiff forever, no
matter how great he is. Now everything is cleared away that might make
trouble and I have a big reserve of line; all that a man can ask.

“Fish,” he said softly, aloud, “I’ll stay with you until I am dead.”

He’ll stay with me too, I suppose, the old man thought and he waited
for it to be light. It was cold now in the time before daylight and he
pushed against the wood to be warm. I can do it as long as he can, he
thought. And in the first light the line extended out and down into
the water. The boat moved steadily and when the first edge of the sun
rose it was on the old man’s right shoulder.

“He’s headed north,” the old man said. The current will have set us
far to the eastward, he thought. I wish he would turn with the
current. That would show that he was tiring.

When the sun had risen further the old man realized that the fish was
not tiring. There was only one favorable sign. The slant of the line
showed he was swimming at a lesser depth. That did not necessarily
mean that he would jump. But he might.

“God let him jump,” the old man said. “I have enough line to handle

Maybe if I can increase the tension just a little it will hurt him and
he will jump, he thought. Now that it is daylight let him jump so that
he’ll fill the sacks along his backbone with air and then he cannot go
deep to die.

He tried to increase the tension, but the line had been taut up to the
very edge of the breaking point since he had hooked the fish and he
felt the harshness as he leaned back to pull and knew he could put no
more strain on it. I must not jerk it ever, he thought. Each jerk
widens the cut the hook makes and then when he does jump he might throw
it. Anyway I feel better with the sun and for once I do not have to
look into it.

There was yellow weed on the line but the old man knew that only made
an added drag and he was pleased. It was the yellow Gulf weed that had
made so much phosphorescence in the night.

“Fish,” he said, “I love you and respect you very much. But I will
kill you dead before this day ends.”

Let us hope so, he thought.

A small bird came toward the skiff from the north. He was a warbler
and flying very low over the water. The old man could see that he was
very tired.

The bird made the stern of the boat and rested there. Then he flew
around the old man’s head and rested on the line where he was more

“How old are you?” the old man asked the bird. “Is this your first

The bird looked at him when he spoke. He was too tired even to examine
the line and he teetered on it as his delicate feet gripped it fast.

“It’s steady,” the old man told him. “It’s too steady. You shouldn’t
be that tired after a windless night. What are birds coming to?”

The hawks, he thought, that come out to sea to meet them. But he said
nothing of this to the bird who could not understand him anyway and who
would learn about the hawks soon enough.

“Take a good rest, small bird,” he said. “Then go in and take your
chance like any man or bird or fish.”

It encouraged him to talk because his back had stiffened in the night
and it hurt truly now.

“Stay at my house if you like, bird,” he said. “I am sorry I cannot
hoist the sail and take you in with the small breeze that is rising.
But I am with a friend.”

Just then the fish gave a sudden lurch that pulled the old man down
onto the bow and would have pulled him overboard if he had not braced
himself and given some line.

The bird had flown up when the line jerked and the old man had not even
seen him go. He felt the line carefully with his right hand and
noticed his hand was bleeding.

“Something hurt him then,” he said aloud and pulled back on the line to
see if he could turn the fish. But when he was touching the breaking
point he held steady and settled back against the strain of the line.

“You’re feeling it now, fish,” he said. “And so, God knows, am I.”

He looked around for the bird now because he would have liked him for
company. The bird was gone.

You did not stay long, the man thought. But it is rougher where you
are going until you make the shore. How did I let the fish cut me with
that one quick pull he made? I must be getting very stupid. Or
perhaps I was looking at the small bird and thinking of him. Now I
will pay attention to my work and then I must eat the tuna so that I
will not have a failure of strength.

“I wish the boy were here and that I had some salt,” he said aloud.

Shifting the weight of the line to his left shoulder and kneeling
carefully he washed his hand in the ocean and held it there, submerged,
for more than a minute watching the blood trail away and the steady
movement of the water against his hand as the boat moved.

“He has slowed much,” he said.

The old man would have liked to keep his hand in the salt water longer
but he was afraid of another sudden lurch by the fish and he stood up
and braced himself and held his hand up against the sun. It was only a
line burn that had cut his flesh. But it was in the working part of
his hand. He knew he would need his hands before this was over and he
did not like to be cut before it started.

“Now,” he said, when his hand had dried, “I must eat the small tuna. I
can reach him with the gaff and eat him here in comfort.”

He knelt down and found the tuna under the stern with the gaff and drew
it toward him keeping it clear of the coiled lines. Holding the line
with his left shoulder again, and bracing on his left hand and arm, he
took the tuna off the gaff hook and put the gaff back in place. He put
one knee on the fish and cut strips of dark red meat longitudinally
from the back of the head to the tail. They were wedge-shaped strips
and he cut them from next to the back bone down to the edge of the
belly. When he had cut six strips he spread them out on the wood of
the bow, wiped his knife on his trousers, and lifted the carcass of the
bonito by the tail and dropped it overboard.

“I don’t think I can eat an entire one,” he said and drew his knife
across one of the strips. He could feel the steady hard pull of the
line and his left hand was cramped. It drew up tight on the heavy cord
and he looked at it in disgust.

“What kind of a hand is that,” he said. “Cramp then if you want. Make
yourself into a claw. It will do you no good.”

Come on, he thought and looked down into the dark water at the slant of
the line. Eat it now and it will strengthen the hand. It is not the
hand’s fault and you have been many hours with the fish. But you can
stay with him forever. Eat the bonito now.

He picked up a piece and put it in his mouth and chewed it slowly. It
was not unpleasant.

Chew it well, he thought, and get all the juices. It would not be bad
to eat with a little lime or with lemon or with salt.

“How do you feel, hand?” he asked the cramped hand that was almost as
stiff as rigor mortis. “I’ll eat some more for you.”

He ate the other part of the piece that he had cut in two. He chewed
it carefully and then spat out the skin.

“How does it go, hand? Or is it too early to know?”

He took another full piece and chewed it.

“It is a strong full-blooded fish,” he thought. “I was lucky to get
him instead of dolphin. Dolphin is too sweet. This is hardly sweet at
all and all the strength is still in it.”

There is no sense in being anything but practical though, he thought.
I wish I had some salt. And I do not know whether the sun will rot or
dry what is left, so I had better eat it all although I am not hungry.
The fish is calm and steady. I will eat it all and then I will be

“Be patient, hand,” he said. “I do this for you.”

I wish I could feed the fish, he thought. He is my brother. But I
must kill him and keep strong to do it. Slowly and conscientiously he
ate all of the wedge-shaped strips of fish.

He straightened up, wiping his hand on his trousers.

“Now,” he said. “You can let the cord go, hand, and I will handle him
with the right arm alone until you stop that nonsense.” He put his
left foot on the heavy line that the left hand had held and lay back
against the pull against his back.

“God help me to have the cramp go,” he said. “Because I do not know
what the fish is going to do.”

But he seems calm, he thought, and following his plan. But what is his
plan, he thought. And what is mine? Mine I must improvise to his
because of his great size. If he will jump I can kill him. But he
stays down forever. Then I will stay down with him forever.

He rubbed the cramped hand against his trousers and tried to gentle the
fingers. But it would not open. Maybe it will open with the sun, he
thought. Maybe it will open when the strong raw tuna is digested. If
I have to have it, I will open it, cost whatever it costs. But I do
not want to open it now by force. Let it open by itself and come back
of its own accord. After all I abused it much in the night when it was
necessary to free and unite the various lines.

He looked across the sea and knew how alone he was now. But he could
see the prisms in the deep dark water and the line stretching ahead and
the strange undulation of the calm. The clouds were building up now
for the trade wind and he looked ahead and saw a flight of wild ducks
etching themselves against the sky over the water, then blurring, then
etching again and he knew no man was ever alone on the sea.

He thought of how some men feared being out of sight of land in a small
boat and knew they were right in the months of sudden bad weather. But
now they were in hurricane months and, when there are no hurricanes,
the weather of hurricane months is the best of all the year.

If there is a hurricane you always see the signs of it in the sky for
days ahead, if you are at sea. They do not see it ashore because they
do not know what to look for, he thought. The land must make a
difference too, in the shape of the clouds. But we have no hurricane
coming now.

He looked at the sky and saw the white cumulus built like friendly
piles of ice cream and high above were the thin feathers of the cirrus
against the high September sky.

“Light brisa,” he said. “Better weather for me than for you, fish.”

His left hand was still cramped, but he was unknotting it slowly.

I hate a cramp, he thought. It is a treachery of one’s own body. It
is humiliating before others to have a diarrhoea from ptomaine
poisoning or to vomit from it. But a cramp, he thought of it as a
calambre, humiliates oneself especially when one is alone.

If the boy were here he could rub it for me and loosen it down from the
forearm, he thought. But it will loosen up.

Then, with his right hand he felt the difference in the pull of the
line before he saw the slant change in the water. Then, as he leaned
against the line and slapped his left hand hard and fast against his
thigh he saw the line slanting slowly upward.

“He’s coming up,” he said. “Come on hand. Please come on.”

The line rose slowly and steadily and then the surface of the ocean
bulged ahead of the boat and the fish came out. He came out unendingly
and water poured from his sides. He was bright in the sun and his head
and back were dark purple and in the sun the stripes on his sides
showed wide and a light lavender. His sword was as long as a baseball
bat and tapered like a rapier and he rose his full length from the
water and then re-entered it, smoothly, like a diver and the old man
saw the great scythe-blade of his tail go under and the line commenced
to race out.

“He is two feet longer than the skiff,” the old man said. The line was
going out fast but steadily and the fish was not panicked. The old man
was trying with both hands to keep the line just inside of breaking
strength. He knew that if he could not slow the fish with a steady
pressure the fish could take out all the line and break it.

He is a great fish and I must convince him, he thought. I must never
let him learn his strength nor what he could do if he made his run. If
I were him I would put in everything now and go until something broke.
But, thank God, they are not as intelligent as we who kill them;
although they are more noble and more able.

The old man had seen many great fish. He had seen many that weighed
more than a thousand pounds and he had caught two of that size in his
life, but never alone. Now alone, and out of sight of land, he was
fast to the biggest fish that he had ever seen and bigger than he had
ever heard of, and his left hand was still as tight as the gripped
claws of an eagle.

It will uncramp though, he thought. Surely it will uncramp to help my
right hand. There are three things that are brothers: the fish and my
two hands. It must uncramp. It is unworthy of it to be cramped. The
fish had slowed again and was going at his usual pace.

I wonder why he jumped, the old man thought. He jumped almost as
though to show me how big he was. I know now, anyway, he thought. I
wish I could show him what sort of man I am. But then he would see the
cramped hand. Let him think I am more man than I am and I will be so.
I wish I was the fish, he thought, with everything he has against only
my will and my intelligence.

He settled comfortably against the wood and took his suffering as it
came and the fish swam steadily and the boat moved slowly through the
dark water. There was a small sea rising with the wind coming up from
the east and at noon the old man’s left hand was uncramped.

“Bad news for you, fish,” he said and shifted the line over the sacks
that covered his shoulders.

He was comfortable but suffering, although he did not admit the
suffering at all.

“I am not religious,” he said. “But I will say ten Our Fathers and ten
Hail Marys that I should catch this fish, and I promise to make a
pilgrimage to the Virgen de Cobre if I catch him. That is a promise.”

He commenced to say his prayers mechanically. Sometimes he would be so
tired that he could not remember the prayer and then he would say them
fast so that they would come automatically. Hail Marys are easier to
say than Our Fathers, he thought.

“Hail Mary full of Grace the Lord is with thee. Blessed art thou among
women and blessed is the fruit of thy womb, Jesus. Holy Mary, Mother
of God, pray for us sinners now and at the hour of our death. Amen.”
Then he added, “Blessed Virgin, pray for the death of this fish.
Wonderful though he is.”

With his prayers said, and feeling much better, but suffering exactly
as much, and perhaps a little more, he leaned against the wood of the
bow and began, mechanically, to work the fingers of his left hand.

The sun was hot now although the breeze was rising gently.

“I had better re-bait that little line out over the stern,” he said.
“If the fish decides to stay another night I will need to eat again and
the water is low in the bottle. I don’t think I can get anything but a
dolphin here. But if I eat him fresh enough he won’t be bad. I wish a
flying fish would come on board tonight. But I have no light to
attract them. A flying fish is excellent to eat raw and I would not
have to cut him up. I must save all my strength now. Christ, I did
not know he was so big.”

“I’ll kill him though,” he said. “In all his greatness and his glory.”

Although it is unjust, he thought. But I will show him what a man can
do and what a man endures.

“I told the boy I was a strange old man,” he said. “Now is when I must
prove it.”

The thousand times that he had proved it meant nothing. Now he was
proving it again. Each time was a new time and he never thought about
the past when he was doing it.

I wish he’d sleep and I could sleep and dream about the lions, he
thought. Why are the lions the main thing that is left? Don’t think,
old man, he said to himself. Rest gently now against the wood and
think of nothing. He is working. Work as little as you can.

It was getting into the afternoon and the boat still moved slowly and
steadily. But there was an added drag now from the easterly breeze and
the old man rode gently with the small sea and the hurt of the cord
across his back came to him easily and smoothly.

Once in the afternoon the line started to rise again. But the fish
only continued to swim at a slightly higher level. The sun was on the
old man’s left arm and shoulder and on his back. So he knew the fish
had turned east of north.

Now that he had seen him once, he could picture the fish swimming in
the water with his purple pectoral fins set wide as wings and the great
erect tail slicing through the dark. I wonder how much he sees at that
depth, the old man thought. His eye is huge and a horse, with much
less eye, can see in the dark. Once I could see quite well in the
dark. Not in the absolute dark. But almost as a cat sees.

The sun and his steady movement of his fingers had uncramped his left
hand now completely and he began to shift more of the strain to it and
he shrugged the muscles of his back to shift the hurt of the cord a

“If you’re not tired, fish,” he said aloud, “you must be very strange.”

He felt very tired now and he knew the night would come soon and he
tried to think of other things. He thought of the Big Leagues, to him
they were the Gran Ligas, and he knew that the Yankees of New York
were playing the Tigres of Detroit.

This is the second day now that I do not know the result of the
juegos, he thought. But I must have confidence and I must be worthy
of the great DiMaggio who does all things perfectly even with the pain
of the bone spur in his heel. What is a bone spur? he asked himself.
Un espuela de hueso. We do not have them. Can it be as painful as
the spur of a fighting cock in one’s heel? I do not think I could
endure that or the loss of the eye and of both eyes and continue to
fight as the fighting cocks do. Man is not much beside the great birds
and beasts. Still I would rather be that beast down there in the
darkness of the sea.

“Unless sharks come,” he said aloud. “If sharks come, God pity him and

Do you believe the great DiMaggio would stay with a fish as long as I
will stay with this one? he thought. I am sure he would and more since
he is young and strong. Also his father was a fisherman. But would
the bone spur hurt him too much?

“I do not know,” he said aloud. “I never had a bone spur.”

As the sun set he remembered, to give himself more confidence, the time
in the tavern at Casablanca when he had played the hand game with the
great negro from Cienfuegos who was the strongest man on the docks.
They had gone one day and one night with their elbows on a chalk line
on the table and their forearms straight up and their hands gripped
tight. Each one was trying to force the other’s hand down onto the
table. There was much betting and people went in and out of the room
under the kerosene lights and he had looked at the arm and hand of the
negro and at the negro’s face. They changed the referees every four
hours after the first eight so that the referees could sleep. Blood
came out from under the fingernails of both his and the negro’s hands
and they looked each other in the eye and at their hands and forearms
and the bettors went in and out of the room and sat on high chairs
against the wall and watched. The walls were painted bright blue and
were of wood and the lamps threw their shadows against them. The
negro’s shadow was huge and it moved on the wall as the breeze moved
the lamps.

The odds would change back and forth all night and they fed the negro
rum and lighted cigarettes for him. Then the negro, after the rum,
would try for a tremendous effort and once he had the old man, who was
not an old man then but was Santiago El Campeon, nearly three inches
off balance. But the old man had raised his hand up to dead even
again. He was sure then that he had the negro, who was a fine man and
a great athlete, beaten. And at daylight when the bettors were asking
that it be called a draw and the referee was shaking his head, he had
unleashed his effort and forced the hand of the negro down and down
until it rested on the wood. The match had started on a Sunday morning
and ended on a Monday morning. Many of the bettors had asked for a
draw because they had to go to work on the docks loading sacks of sugar
or at the Havana Coal Company. Otherwise everyone would have wanted it
to go to a finish. But he had finished it anyway and before anyone had
to go to work.

For a long time after that everyone had called him The Champion and
there had been a return match in the spring. But not much money was
bet and he had won it quite easily since he had broken the confidence
of the negro from Cienfuegos in the first match. After that he had a
few matches and then no more. He decided that he could beat anyone if
he wanted to badly enough and he decided that it was bad for his right
hand for fishing. He had tried a few practice matches with his left
hand. But his left hand had always been a traitor and would not do
what he called on it to do and he did not trust it.

The sun will bake it out well now, he thought. It should not cramp on
me again unless it gets too cold in the night. I wonder what this
night will bring.

An airplane passed over head on its course to Miami and he watched its
shadow scaring up the schools of flying fish.

“With so much flying fish there should be dolphin,” he said, and leaned
back on the line to see if it was possible to gain any on his fish.
But he could not and it stayed at the hardness and water-drop shivering
that preceded breaking. The boat moved ahead slowly and he watched the
airplane until he could no longer see it.

It must be very strange in an airplane, he thought. I wonder what the
sea looks like from that height? They should be able to see the fish
well if they do not fly too high. I would like to fly very slowly at
two hundred fathoms high and see the fish from above. In the turtle
boats I was in the cross-trees of the mast-head and even at that height
I saw much. The dolphin look greener from there and you can see their
stripes and their purple spots and you can see all of the school as
they swim. Why is it that all the fast-moving fish of the dark current
have purple backs and usually purple stripes or spots? The dolphin
looks green of course because he is really golden. But when he comes
to feed, truly hungry, purple stripes show on his sides as on a marlin.
Can it be anger, or the greater speed he makes that brings them out?

Just before it was dark, as they passed a great island of Sargasso weed
that heaved and swung in the light sea as though the ocean were making
love with something under a yellow blanket, his small line was taken by
a dolphin. He saw it first when it jumped in the air, true gold in the
last of the sun and bending and flapping wildly in the air. It jumped
again and again in the acrobatics of its fear and he worked his way
back to the stern and crouching and holding the big line with his right
hand and arm, he pulled the dolphin in with his left hand, stepping on
the gained line each time with his bare left foot. When the fish was
at the stern, plunging and cutting from side to side in desperation,
the old man leaned over the stern and lifted the burnished gold fish
with its purple spots over the stern. Its jaws were working
convulsively in quick bites against the hook and it pounded the bottom
of the skiff with its long flat body, its tail and its head until he
clubbed it across the shining golden head until it shivered and was

The old man unhooked the fish, rebaited the line with another sardine
and tossed it over. Then he worked his way slowly back to the bow. He
washed his left hand and wiped it on his trousers. Then he shifted the
heavy line from his right hand to his left and washed his right hand in
the sea while he watched the sun go into the ocean and the slant of the
big cord.

“He hasn’t changed at all,” he said. But watching the movement of the
water against his hand he noted that it was perceptibly slower.

“I’ll lash the two oars together across the stern and that will slow
him in the night,” he said. “He’s good for the night and so am I.”

It would be better to gut the dolphin a little later to save the blood
in the meat, he thought. I can do that a little later and lash the
oars to make a drag at the same time. I had better keep the fish quiet
now and not disturb him too much at sunset. The setting of the sun is
a difficult time for all fish.

He let his hand dry in the air then grasped the line with it and eased
himself as much as he could and allowed himself to be pulled forward
against the wood so that the boat took the strain as much, or more,
than he did.

I’m learning how to do it, he thought. This part of it anyway. Then
too, remember he hasn’t eaten since he took the bait and he is huge and
needs much food. I have eaten the whole bonito. Tomorrow I will eat
the dolphin. He called it dorado. Perhaps I should eat some of it
when I clean it. It will be harder to eat than the bonito. But, then,
nothing is easy.

“How do you feel, fish?” he asked aloud. “I feel good and my left hand
is better and I have food for a night and a day. Pull the boat, fish.”

He did not truly feel good because the pain from the cord across his
back had almost passed pain and gone into a dullness that he
mistrusted. But I have had worse things than that, he thought. My
hand is only cut a little and the cramp is gone from the other. My
legs are all right. Also now I have gained on him in the question of

It was dark now as it becomes dark quickly after the sun sets in
September. He lay against the worn wood of the bow and rested all that
he could. The first stars were out. He did not know the name of Rigel
but he saw it and knew soon they would all be out and he would have all
his distant friends.

“The fish is my friend too,” he said aloud. “I have never seen or
heard of such a fish. But I must kill him. I am glad we do not have
to try to kill the stars.”

Imagine if each day a man must try to kill the moon, he thought. The
moon runs away. But imagine if a man each day should have to try to
kill the sun? We were born lucky, he thought.

Then he was sorry for the great fish that had nothing to eat and his
determination to kill him never relaxed in his sorrow for him. How
many people will he feed, he thought. But are they worthy to eat him?
No, of course not. There is no one worthy of eating him from the
manner of his behaviour and his great dignity.

I do not understand these things, he thought. But it is good that we
do not have to try to kill the sun or the moon or the stars. It is
enough to live on the sea and kill our true brothers.

Now, he thought, I must think about the drag. It has its perils and
its merits. I may lose so much line that I will lose him, if he makes
his effort and the drag made by the oars is in place and the boat loses
all her lightness. Her lightness prolongs both our suffering but it is
my safety since he has great speed that he has never yet employed. No
matter what passes I must gut the dolphin so he does not spoil and eat
some of him to be strong.

Now I will rest an hour more and feel that he is solid and steady
before I move back to the stern to do the work and make the decision.
In the meantime I can see how he acts and if he shows any changes. The
oars are a good trick; but it has reached the time to play for safety.
He is much fish still and I saw that the hook was in the corner of his
mouth and he has kept his mouth tight shut. The punishment of the hook
is nothing. The punishment of hunger, and that he is against something
that he does not comprehend, is everything. Rest now, old man, and let
him work until your next duty comes.

He rested for what he believed to be two hours. The moon did not rise
now until late and he had no way of judging the time. Nor was he
really resting except comparatively. He was still bearing the pull of
the fish across his shoulders but he placed his left hand on the
gunwale of the bow and confided more and more of the resistance to the
fish to the skiff itself.

How simple it would be if I could make the line fast, he thought. But
with one small lurch he could break it. I must cushion the pull of the
line with my body and at all times be ready to give line with both

“But you have not slept yet, old man,” he said aloud. “It is half a
day and a night and now another day and you have not slept. You must
devise a way so that you sleep a little if he is quiet and steady. If
you do not sleep you might become unclear in the head.”

I’m clear enough in the head, he thought. Too clear. I am as clear as
the stars that are my brothers. Still I must sleep. They sleep and
the moon and the sun sleep and even the ocean sleeps sometimes on
certain days when there is no current and a flat calm.

But remember to sleep, he thought. Make yourself do it and devise some
simple and sure way about the lines. Now go back and prepare the
dolphin. It is too dangerous to rig the oars as a drag if you must

I could go without sleeping, he told himself. But it would be too

He started to work his way back to the stern on his hands and knees,
being careful not to jerk against the fish. He may be half asleep
himself, he thought. But I do not want him to rest. He must pull
until he dies.

Back in the stern he turned so that his left hand held the strain of
the line across his shoulders and drew his knife from its sheath with
his right hand. The stars were bright now and he saw the dolphin
clearly and he pushed the blade of his knife into his head and drew him

out from under the stern. He put one of his feet on the fish and slit
him quickly from the vent up to the tip of his lower jaw. Then he put
his knife down and gutted him with his right hand, scooping him clean
and pulling the gills clear. He felt the maw heavy and slippery in his
hands and he slit it open. There were two flying fish inside. They
were fresh and hard and he laid them side by side and dropped the guts
and the gills over the stern. They sank leaving a trail of
phosphorescence in the water. The dolphin was cold and a leprous
gray-white now in the starlight and the old man skinned one side of him
while he held his right foot on the fish’s head. Then he turned him
over and skinned the other side and cut each side off from the head
down to the tail.

He slid the carcass overboard and looked to see if there was any swirl
in the water. But there was only the light of its slow descent. He
turned then and placed the two flying fish inside the two fillets of
fish and putting his knife back in its sheath, he worked his way slowly
back to the bow. His back was bent with the weight of the line across
it and he carried the fish in his right hand.

Back in the bow he laid the two fillets of fish out on the wood with
the flying fish beside them. After that he settled the line across his
shoulders in a new place and held it again with his left hand resting
on the gunwale. Then he leaned over the side and washed the flying
fish in the water, noting the speed of the water against his hand. His
hand was phosphorescent from skinning the fish and he watched the flow
of the water against it. The flow was less strong and as he rubbed the
side of his hand against the planking of the skiff, particles of
phosphorus floated off and drifted slowly astern.

“He is tiring or he is resting,” the old man said. “Now let me get
through the eating of this dolphin and get some rest and a little

Under the stars and with the night colder all the time he ate half of
one of the dolphin fillets and one of the flying fish, gutted and with
its head cut off.

“What an excellent fish dolphin is to eat cooked,” he said. “And what
a miserable fish raw. I will never go in a boat again without salt or

If I had brains I would have splashed water on the bow all day and
drying, it would have made salt, he thought. But then I did not hook
the dolphin until almost sunset. Still it was a lack of preparation.
But I have chewed it all well and I am not nauseated.

The sky was clouding over to the east and one after another the stars
he knew were gone. It looked now as though he were moving into a great
canyon of clouds and the wind had dropped.

“There will be bad weather in three or four days,” he said. “But not
tonight and not tomorrow. Rig now to get some sleep, old man, while
the fish is calm and steady.”

He held the line tight in his right hand and then pushed his thigh
against his right hand as he leaned all his weight against the wood of
the bow. Then he passed the line a little lower on his shoulders and
braced his left hand on it.

My right hand can hold it as long as it is braced, he thought. If it
relaxes in sleep my left hand will wake me as the line goes out. It is
hard on the right hand. But he is used to punishment. Even if I sleep
twenty minutes or a half an hour it is good. He lay forward cramping
himself against the line with all of his body, putting all his weight
onto his right hand, and he was asleep.

He did not dream of the lions but instead of a vast school of porpoises
that stretched for eight or ten miles and it was in the time of their
mating and they would leap high into the air and return into the same
hole they had made in the water when they leaped.

Then he dreamed that he was in the village on his bed and there was a
norther and he was very cold and his right arm was asleep because his
head had rested on it instead of a pillow.

After that he began to dream of the long yellow beach and he saw the
first of the lions come down onto it in the early dark and then the
other lions came and he rested his chin on the wood of the bows where
the ship lay anchored with the evening off-shore breeze and he waited
to see if there would be more lions and he was happy.

The moon had been up for a long time but he slept on and the fish
pulled on steadily and the boat moved into the tunnel of clouds.

He woke with the jerk of his right fist coming up against his face and
the line burning out through his right hand. He had no feeling of his
left hand but he braked all he could with his right and the line rushed
out. Finally his left hand found the line and he leaned back against
the line and now it burned his back and his left hand, and his left
hand was taking all the strain and cutting badly. He looked back at
the coils of line and they were feeding smoothly. Just then the fish
jumped making a great bursting of the ocean and then a heavy fall.
Then he jumped again and again and the boat was going fast although
line was still racing out and the old man was raising the strain to
breaking point and raising it to breaking point again and again. He
had been pulled down tight onto the bow and his face was in the cut
slice of dolphin and he could not move.

This is what we waited for, he thought. So now let us take it.

Make him pay for the line, he thought. Make him pay for it.

He could not see the fish’s jumps but only heard the breaking of the
ocean and the heavy splash as he fell. The speed of the line was
cutting his hands badly but he had always known this would happen and
he tried to keep the cutting across the calloused parts and not let the
line slip into the palm nor cut the fingers.

If the boy was here he would wet the coils of line, he thought. Yes.
If the boy were here. If the boy were here.

The line went out and out and out but it was slowing now and he was
making the fish earn each inch of it. Now he got his head up from the
wood and out of the slice of fish that his cheek had crushed. Then he
was on his knees and then he rose slowly to his feet. He was ceding
line but more slowly all the time. He worked back to where he could
feel with his foot the coils of line that he could not see. There was
plenty of line still and now the fish had to pull the friction of all
that new line through the water.

Yes, he thought. And now he has jumped more than a dozen times and
filled the sacks along his back with air and he cannot go down deep to
die where I cannot bring him up. He will start circling soon and then
I must work on him. I wonder what started him so suddenly? Could it
have been hunger that made him desperate, or was he frightened by
something in the night? Maybe he suddenly felt fear. But he was such
a calm, strong fish and he seemed so fearless and so confident. It is

“You better be fearless and confident yourself, old man,” he said.
“You’re holding him again but you cannot get line. But soon he has to

The old man held him with his left hand and his shoulders now and
stooped down and scooped up water in his right hand to get the crushed
dolphin flesh off of his face. He was afraid that it might nauseate
him and he would vomit and lose his strength. When his face was
cleaned he washed his right hand in the water over the side and then
let it stay in the salt water while he watched the first light come
before the sunrise. He’s headed almost east, he thought. That means
he is tired and going with the current. Soon he will have to circle.
Then our true work begins.

After he judged that his right hand had been in the water long enough
he took it out and looked at it. “It is not bad,” he said. “And pain
does not matter to a man.”

He took hold of the line carefully so that it did not fit into any of
the fresh line cuts and shifted his weight so that he could put his
left hand into the sea on the other side of the skiff.

“You did not do so badly for something worthless,” he said to his left
hand. “But there was a moment when I could not find you.”

Why was I not born with two good hands? he thought. Perhaps it was my
fault in not training that one properly. But God knows he has had
enough chances to learn. He did not do so badly in the night, though,
and he has only cramped once. If he cramps again let the line cut him

When he thought that he knew that he was not being clear-headed and he
thought he should chew some more of the dolphin. But I can’t, he told
himself. It is better to be light-headed than to lose your strength
from nausea. And I know I cannot keep it if I eat it since my face was
in it. I will keep it for an emergency until it goes bad. But it is
too late to try for strength now through nourishment. You’re stupid,
he told himself. Eat the other flying fish.

It was there, cleaned and ready, and he picked it up with his left hand
and ate it chewing the bones carefully and eating all of it down to the

It has more nourishment than almost any fish, he thought. At least the
kind of strength that I need. Now I have done what I can, he thought.
Let him begin to circle and let the fight come.

The sun was rising for the third time since he had put to sea when the
fish started to circle.

He could not see by the slant of the line that the fish was circling.
It was too early for that. He just felt a faint slackening of the
pressure of the line and he commenced to pull on it gently with his
right hand. It tightened, as always, but just when he reached the
point where it would break, line began to come in. He slipped his
shoulders and head from under the line and began to pull in line
steadily and gently. He used both of his hands in a swinging motion
and tried to do the pulling as much as he could with his body and his
legs. His old legs and shoulders pivoted with the swinging of the

“It is a very big circle,” he said. “But he is circling.”

Then the line would not come in any more and he held it until he saw
the drops jumping from it in the sun. Then it started out and the old
man knelt down and let it go grudgingly back into the dark water.

“He is making the far part of his circle now,” he said. I must hold
all I can, he thought. The strain will shorten his circle each time.
Perhaps in an hour I will see him. Now I must convince him and then I
must kill him.

But the fish kept on circling slowly and the old man was wet with sweat
and tired deep into his bones two hours later. But the circles were
much shorter now and from the way the line slanted he could tell the
fish had risen steadily while he swam.

For an hour the old man had been seeing black spots before his eyes and
the sweat salted his eyes and salted the cut over his eye and on his
forehead. He was not afraid of the black spots. They were normal at
the tension that he was pulling on the line. Twice, though, he had
felt faint and dizzy and that had worried him.

“I could not fail myself and die on a fish like this,” he said. “Now
that I have him coming so beautifully, God help me endure. I’ll say a
hundred Our Fathers and a hundred Hail Marys. But I cannot say them

Consider them said, he thought. I’ll say them later.

Just then he felt a sudden banging and jerking on the line he held with
his two hands. It was sharp and hard-feeling and heavy.

He is hitting the wire leader with his spear, he thought. That was
bound to come. He had to do that. It may make him jump though and I
would rather he stayed circling now. The jumps were necessary for him
to take air. But after that each one can widen the opening of the hook
wound and he can throw the hook.

“Don’t jump, fish,” he said. “Don’t jump.”

The fish hit the wire several times more and each time he shook his
head the old man gave up a little line.

I must hold his pain where it is, he thought. Mine does not matter. I
can control mine. But his pain could drive him mad.

After a while the fish stopped beating at the wire and started circling
slowly again. The old man was gaining line steadily now. But he felt
faint again. He lifted some sea water with his left hand and put it on
his head. Then he put more on and rubbed the back of his neck.

“I have no cramps,” he said. “He’ll be up soon and I can last. You
have to last. Don’t even speak of it.”

He kneeled against the bow and, for a moment, slipped the line over his
back again. I’ll rest now while he goes out on the circle and then
stand up and work on him when he comes in, he decided.

It was a great temptation to rest in the bow and let the fish make one
circle by himself without recovering any line. But when the strain
showed the fish had turned to come toward the boat, the old man rose to
his feet and started the pivoting and the weaving pulling that brought
in all the line he gained.

I’m tireder than I have ever been, he thought, and now the trade wind
is rising. But that will be good to take him in with. I need that

“I’ll rest on the next turn as he goes out,” he said. “I feel much
better. Then in two or three turns more I will have him.”

His straw hat was far on the back of his head and he sank down into the
bow with the pull of the line as he felt the fish turn.

You work now, fish, he thought. I’ll take you at the turn.

The sea had risen considerably. But it was a fair-weather breeze and
he had to have it to get home.

“I’ll just steer south and west,” he said. “A man is never lost at sea
and it is a long island.”

It was on the third turn that he saw the fish first.

He saw him first as a dark shadow that took so long to pass under the
boat that he could not believe its length.

“No,” he said. “He can’t be that big.”

But he was that big and at the end of this circle he came to the
surface only thirty yards away and the man saw his tail out of water.
It was higher than a big scythe blade and a very pale lavender above
the dark blue water. It raked back and as the fish swam just below the
surface the old man could see his huge bulk and the purple stripes that
banded him. His dorsal fin was down and his huge pectorals were spread

On this circle the old man could see the fish’s eye and the two gray
sucking fish that swam around him. Sometimes they attached themselves
to him. Sometimes they darted off. Sometimes they would swim easily
in his shadow. They were each over three feet long and when they swam
fast they lashed their whole bodies like eels.

The old man was sweating now but from something else besides the sun.
On each calm placid turn the fish made he was gaining line and he was
sure that in two turns more he would have a chance to get the harpoon

But I must get him close, close, close, he thought. I mustn’t try for
the head. I must get the heart.

“Be calm and strong, old man,” he said.

On the next circle the fish’s back was out but he was a little too far
from the boat. On the next circle he was still too far away but he was
higher out of water and the old man was sure that by gaining some more
line he could have him alongside.

He had rigged his harpoon long before and its coil of light rope was in
a round basket and the end was made fast to the bitt in the bow.

The fish was coming in on his circle now calm and beautiful looking and
only his great tail moving. The old man pulled on him all that he
could to bring him closer. For just a moment the fish turned a little
on his side. Then he straightened himself and began another circle.

“I moved him,” the old man said. “I moved him then.”

He felt faint again now but he held on the great fish all the strain
that he could. I moved him, he thought. Maybe this time I can get him
over. Pull, hands, he thought. Hold up, legs. Last for me, head.
Last for me. You never went. This time I’ll pull him over.

But when he put all of his effort on, starting it well out before the
fish came alongside and pulling with all his strength, the fish pulled
part way over and then righted himself and swam away.

“Fish,” the old man said. “Fish, you are going to have to die anyway.
Do you have to kill me too?”

That way nothing is accomplished, he thought. His mouth was too dry to
speak but he could not reach for the water now. I must get him
alongside this time, he thought. I am not good for many more turns.
Yes you are, he told himself. You’re good for ever.

On the next turn, he nearly had him. But again the fish righted
himself and swam slowly away.

You are killing me, fish, the old man thought. But you have a right
to. Never have I seen a greater, or more beautiful, or a calmer or
more noble thing than you, brother. Come on and kill me. I do not
care who kills who.

Now you are getting confused in the head, he thought. You must keep
your head clear. Keep your head clear and know how to suffer like a
man. Or a fish, he thought.

“Clear up, head,” he said in a voice he could hardly hear. “Clear up.”

Twice more it was the same on the turns.

I do not know, the old man thought. He had been on the point of
feeling himself go each time. I do not know. But I will try it once

He tried it once more and he felt himself going when he turned the
fish. The fish righted himself and swam off again slowly with the
great tail weaving in the air.

I’ll try it again, the old man promised, although his hands were mushy
now and he could only see well in flashes.

He tried it again and it was the same. So, he thought, and he felt
himself going before he started; I will try it once again.

He took all his pain and what was left of his strength and his long
gone pride and he put it against the fish’s agony and the fish came
over onto his side and swam gently on his side, his bill almost
touching the planking of the skiff and started to pass the boat, long,
deep, wide, silver and barred with purple and interminable in the water.

The old man dropped the line and put his foot on it and lifted the
harpoon as high as he could and drove it down with all his strength,
and more strength he had just summoned, into the fish’s side just
behind the great chest fin that rose high in the air to the altitude of
the man’s chest. He felt the iron go in and he leaned on it and drove
it further and then pushed all his weight after it.

Then the fish came alive, with his death in him, and rose high out of
the water showing all his great length and width and all his power and
his beauty. He seemed to hang in the air above the old man in the
skiff. Then he fell into the water with a crash that sent spray over
the old man and over all of the skiff.

The old man felt faint and sick and he could not see well. But he
cleared the harpoon line and let it run slowly through his raw hands
and, when he could see, he saw the fish was on his back with his silver
belly up. The shaft of the harpoon was projecting at an angle from the
fish’s shoulder and the sea was discolouring with the red of the blood
from his heart. First it was dark as a shoal in the blue water that
was more than a mile deep. Then it spread like a cloud. The fish was
silvery and still and floated with the waves.

The old man looked carefully in the glimpse of vision that he had.
Then he took two turns of the harpoon line around the bitt in the bow
and laid his head on his hands.

“Keep my head clear,” he said against the wood of the bow. “I am a
tired old man. But I have killed this fish which is my brother and now
I must do the slave work.”

Now I must prepare the nooses and the rope to lash him alongside, he
thought. Even if we were two and swamped her to load him and bailed
her out, this skiff would never hold him. I must prepare everything,
then bring him in and lash him well and step the mast and set sail for

He started to pull the fish in to have him alongside so that he could
pass a line through his gills and out his mouth and make his head fast
alongside the bow. I want to see him, he thought, and to touch and to
feel him. He is my fortune, he thought. But that is not why I wish to
feel him. I think I felt his heart, he thought. When I pushed on the
harpoon shaft the second time. Bring him in now and make him fast and
get the noose around his tail and another around his middle to bind him
to the skiff.

“Get to work, old man,” he said. He took a very small drink of the
water. “There is very much slave work to be done now that the fight is

He looked up at the sky and then out to his fish. He looked at the sun
carefully. It is not much more than noon, he thought. And the trade
wind is rising. The lines all mean nothing now. The boy and I will
splice them when we are home.

“Come on, fish,” he said. But the fish did not come. Instead he lay
there wallowing now in the seas and the old man pulled the skiff up
onto him.

When he was even with him and had the fish’s head against the bow he
could not believe his size. But he untied the harpoon rope from the
bitt, passed it through the fish’s gills and out his jaws, made a turn
around his sword then passed the rope through the other gill, made
another turn around the bill and knotted the double rope and made it
fast to the bitt in the bow. He cut the rope then and went astern to
noose the tail. The fish had turned silver from his original purple
and silver, and the stripes showed the same pale violet colour as his
tail. They were wider than a man’s hand with his fingers spread and
the fish’s eye looked as detached as the mirrors in a periscope or as a
saint in a procession.

“It was the only way to kill him,” the old man said. He was feeling
better since the water and he knew he would not go away and his head
was clear. He’s over fifteen hundred pounds the way he is, he thought.
Maybe much more. If he dresses out two-thirds of that at thirty cents
a pound?

“I need a pencil for that,” he said. “My head is not that clear. But
I think the great DiMaggio would be proud of me today. I had no bone
spurs. But the hands and the back hurt truly.” I wonder what a bone
spur is, he thought. Maybe we have them without knowing of it.

He made the fish fast to bow and stern and to the middle thwart. He
was so big it was like lashing a much bigger skiff alongside. He cut a
piece of line and tied the fish’s lower jaw against his bill so his
mouth would not open and they would sail as cleanly as possible. Then
he stepped the mast and, with the stick that was his gaff and with his
boom rigged, the patched sail drew, the boat began to move, and half
lying in the stern he sailed south-west.

He did not need a compass to tell him where south-west was. He only
needed the feel of the trade wind and the drawing of the sail. I
better put a small line out with a spoon on it and try and get
something to eat and drink for the moisture. But he could not find a
spoon and his sardines were rotten. So he hooked a patch of yellow
gulf weed with the gaff as they passed and shook it so that the small
shrimps that were in it fell onto the planking of the skiff. There
were more than a dozen of them and they jumped and kicked like sand
fleas. The old man pinched their heads off with his thumb and
forefinger and ate them chewing up the shells and the tails. They were
very tiny but he knew they were nourishing and they tasted good.

The old man still had two drinks of water in the bottle and he used
half of one after he had eaten the shrimps. The skiff was sailing well
considering the handicaps and he steered with the tiller under his arm.
He could see the fish and he had only to look at his hands and feel his
back against the stern to know that this had truly happened and was not
a dream. At one time when he was feeling so badly toward the end, he
had thought perhaps it was a dream. Then when he had seen the fish
come out of the water and hang motionless in the sky before he fell, he
was sure there was some great strangeness and he could not believe it.
Then he could not see well, although now he saw as well as ever.

Now he knew there was the fish and his hands and back were no dream.
The hands cure quickly, he thought. I bled them clean and the salt
water will heal them. The dark water of the true gulf is the greatest
healer that there is. All I must do is keep the head clear. The hands
have done their work and we sail well. With his mouth shut and his
tail straight up and down we sail like brothers. Then his head started
to become a little unclear and he thought, is he bringing me in or am I
bringing him in? If I were towing him behind there would be no
question. Nor if the fish were in the skiff, with all dignity gone,
there would be no question either. But they were sailing together
lashed side by side and the old man thought, let him bring me in if it
pleases him. I am only better than him through trickery and he meant
me no harm.

They sailed well and the old man soaked his hands in the salt water and
tried to keep his head clear. There were high cumulus clouds and
enough cirrus above them so that the old man knew the breeze would last
all night. The old man looked at the fish constantly to make sure it
was true. It was an hour before the first shark hit him.

The shark was not an accident. He had come up from deep down in the
water as the dark cloud of blood had settled and dispersed in the mile
deep sea. He had come up so fast and absolutely without caution that
he broke the surface of the blue water and was in the sun. Then he
fell back into the sea and picked up the scent and started swimming on
the course the skiff and the fish had taken.

Sometimes he lost the scent. But he would pick it up again, or have
just a trace of it, and he swam fast and hard on the course. He was a
very big Mako shark built to swim as fast as the fastest fish in the
sea and everything about him was beautiful except his jaws.

His back was as blue as a sword fish’s and his belly was silver and his
hide was smooth and handsome. He was built as a sword fish except for
his huge jaws which were tight shut now as he swam fast, just under the
surface with his high dorsal fin knifing through the water without
wavering. Inside the closed double lip of his jaws all of his eight
rows of teeth were slanted inwards. They were not the ordinary
pyramid-shaped teeth of most sharks. They were shaped like a man’s
fingers when they are crisped like claws. They were nearly as long as
the fingers of the old man and they had razor-sharp cutting edges on
both sides. This was a fish built to feed on all the fishes in the
sea, that were so fast and strong and well armed that they had no other
enemy. Now he speeded up as he smelled the fresher scent and his blue
dorsal fin cut the water.

When the old man saw him coming he knew that this was a shark that had
no fear at all and would do exactly what he wished. He prepared the
harpoon and made the rope fast while he watched the shark come on. The
rope was short as it lacked what he had cut away to lash the fish.

The old man’s head was clear and good now and he was full of resolution
but he had little hope. It was too good to last, he thought. He took
one look at the great fish as he watched the shark close in. It might
as well have been a dream, he thought. I cannot keep him from hitting
me but maybe I can get him. Dentuso, he thought. Bad luck to your

The shark closed fast astern and when he hit the fish the old man saw
his mouth open and his strange eyes and the clicking chop of the teeth
as he drove forward in the meat just above the tail. The shark’s head
was out of water and his back was coming out and the old man could hear
the noise of skin and flesh ripping on the big fish when he rammed the
harpoon down onto the shark’s head at a spot where the line between his
eyes intersected with the line that ran straight back from his nose.
There were no such lines. There was only the heavy sharp blue head and
the big eyes and the clicking, thrusting all-swallowing jaws. But that
was the location of the brain and the old man hit it. He hit it with
his blood mushed hands driving a good harpoon with all his strength.
He hit it without hope but with resolution and complete malignancy.

The shark swung over and the old man saw his eye was not alive and then
he swung over once again, wrapping himself in two loops of the rope.
The old man knew that he was dead but the shark would not accept it.
Then, on his back, with his tail lashing and his jaws clicking, the
shark plowed over the water as a speed-boat does. The water was white
where his tail beat it and three-quarters of his body was clear above
the water when the rope came taut, shivered, and then snapped. The
shark lay quietly for a little while on the surface and the old man
watched him. Then he went down very slowly.

“He took about forty pounds,” the old man said aloud. He took my
harpoon too and all the rope, he thought, and now my fish bleeds again
and there will be others.

He did not like to look at the fish anymore since he had been
mutilated. When the fish had been hit it was as though he himself were

But I killed the shark that hit my fish, he thought. And he was the
biggest dentuso that I have ever seen. And God knows that I have
seen big ones.

It was too good to last, he thought. I wish it had been a dream now
and that I had never hooked the fish and was alone in bed on the

“But man is not made for defeat,” he said. “A man can be destroyed but
not defeated.” I am sorry that I killed the fish though, he thought.
Now the bad time is coming and I do not even have the harpoon. The
dentuso is cruel and able and strong and intelligent. But I was more
intelligent that he was. Perhaps not, he thought. Perhaps I was only
better armed.

“Don’t think, old man,” he said aloud. “Sail on this course and take
it when it comes.”

But I must think, he thought. Because it is all I have left. That and
baseball. I wonder how the great DiMaggio would have liked the way I
hit him in the brain? It was no great thing, he thought. Any man
could do it. But do you think my hands were as great a handicap as the
bone spurs? I cannot know. I never had anything wrong with my heel
except the time the sting ray stung it when I stepped on him when
swimming and paralyzed the lower leg and made the unbearable pain.

“Think about something cheerful, old man,” he said. “Every minute now
you are closer to home. You sail lighter for the loss of forty pounds.”

He knew quite well the pattern of what could happen when he reached the
inner part of the current. But there was nothing to be done now.

“Yes there is,” he said aloud. “I can lash my knife to the butt of one
of the oars.”

So he did that with the tiller under his arm and the sheet of the sail
under his foot.

“Now,” he said. “I am still an old man. But I am not unarmed.”

The breeze was fresh now and he sailed on well. He watched only the
forward part of the fish and some of his hope returned.

It is silly not to hope, he thought. Besides I believe it is a sin.
Do not think about sin, he thought. There are enough problems now
without sin. Also I have no understanding of it.

I have no understanding of it and I am not sure that I believe in it.
Perhaps it was a sin to kill the fish. I suppose it was even though I
did it to keep me alive and feed many people. But then everything is a
sin. Do not think about sin. It is much too late for that and there
are people who are paid to do it. Let them think about it. You were
born to be a fisherman as the fish was born to be a fish. San Pedro
was a fisherman as was the father of the great DiMaggio.

But he liked to think about all things that he was involved in and
since there was nothing to read and he did not have a radio, he thought
much and he kept on thinking about sin. You did not kill the fish only
to keep alive and to sell for food, he thought. You killed him for
pride and because you are a fisherman. You loved him when he was alive
and you loved him after. It you love him, it is not a sin to kill him.
Or is it more?

“You think too much, old man,” he said aloud.

But you enjoyed killing the dentuso, he thought. He lives on the
live fish as you do. He is not a scavenger nor just a moving appetite
as some sharks are. He is beautiful and noble and knows no fear of

“I killed him in self-defense,” the old man said aloud. “And I killed
him well.”

Besides, he thought, everything kills everything else in some way.
Fishing kills me exactly as it keeps me alive. The boy keeps me alive,
he thought. I must not deceive myself too much.

He leaned over the side and pulled loose a piece of the meat of the
fish where the shark had cut him. He chewed it and noted its quality
and its good taste. It was firm and juicy, like meat, but it was not
red. There was no stringiness in it and he knew that it would bring
the highest price in the market. But there was no way to keep its
scent out of the water and the old man knew that a very bad time was

The breeze was steady. It had backed a little further into the
north-east and he knew that meant that it would not fall off. The old
man looked ahead of him but he could see no sails nor could he see the
hull nor the smoke of any ship. There were only the flying fish that
went up from his bow sailing away to either side and the yellow patches
of gulf-weed. He could not even see a bird.

He had sailed for two hours, resting in the stern and sometimes chewing
a bit of the meat from the marlin, trying to rest and to be strong,
when he saw the first of the two sharks.

Ay,” he said aloud. There is no translation for this word and
perhaps it is just a noise such as a man might make, involuntarily,
feeling the nail go through his hands and into the wood.

Galanos,” he said aloud. He had seen the second fin now coming up
behind the first and had identified them as shovel-nosed sharks by the
brown, triangular fin and the sweeping movements of the tail. They had
the scent and were excited and in the stupidity of their great hunger
they were losing and finding the scent in their excitement. But they
were closing all the time.

The old man made the sheet fast and jammed the tiller. Then he took up
the oar with the knife lashed to it. He lifted it as lightly as he
could because his hands rebelled at the pain. Then he opened and
closed them on it lightly to loosen them. He closed them firmly so
they would take the pain now and would not flinch and watched the
sharks come. He could see their wide, flattened, shovel-pointed heads
now and their white-tipped wide pectoral fins. They were hateful
sharks, bad smelling, scavengers as well as killers, and when they were
hungry they would bite at an oar or the rudder of a boat. It was these
sharks that would cut the turtles’ legs and flippers off when the
turtles were asleep on the surface, and they would hit a man in the
water, if they were hungry, even if the man had no smell of fish blood
nor of fish slime on him.

Ay,” the old man said. “Galanos. Come on, Galanos.”

They came. But they did not come as the Mako had come. One turned and
went out of sight under the skiff and the old man could feel the skiff
shake as he jerked and pulled on the fish. The other watched the old
man with his slitted yellow eyes and then came in fast with his half
circle of jaws wide to hit the fish where he had already been bitten.
The line showed clearly on the top of his brown head and back where the
brain joined the spinal cord and the old man drove the knife on the oar
into the juncture, withdrew it, and drove it in again into the shark’s
yellow cat-like eyes. The shark let go of the fish and slid down,
swallowing what he had taken as he died.

The skiff was still shaking with the destruction the other shark was
doing to the fish and the old man let go the sheet so that the skiff
would swing broadside and bring the shark out from under. When he saw
the shark he leaned over the side and punched at him. He hit only meat
and the hide was set hard and he barely got the knife in. The blow
hurt not only his hands but his shoulder too. But the shark came up
fast with his head out and the old man hit him squarely in the center
of his flat-topped head as his nose came out of water and lay against
the fish. The old man withdrew the blade and punched the shark exactly
in the same spot again. He still hung to the fish with his jaws hooked
and the old man stabbed him in his left eye. The shark still hung

“No?” the old man said and he drove the blade between the vertebrae and
the brain. It was an easy shot now and he felt the cartilage sever.
The old man reversed the oar and put the blade between the shark’s jaws
to open them. He twisted the blade and as the shark slid loose he
said, “Go on, galano. Slide down a mile deep. Go see your friend,
or maybe it’s your mother.”

The old man wiped the blade of his knife and laid down the oar. Then
he found the sheet and the sail filled and he brought the skiff onto
her course.

“They must have taken a quarter of him and of the best meat,” he said
aloud. “I wish it were a dream and that I had never hooked him. I’m
sorry about it, fish. It makes everything wrong.” He stopped and he
did not want to look at the fish now. Drained of blood and awash he
looked the colour of the silver backing of a mirror and his stripes
still showed.

“I shouldn’t have gone out so far, fish,” he said. “Neither for you
nor for me. I’m sorry, fish.”

Now, he said to himself. Look to the lashing on the knife and see if
it has been cut. Then get your hand in order because there still is
more to come.

“I wish I had a stone for the knife,” the old man said after he had
checked the lashing on the oar butt. “I should have brought a stone.”
You should have brought many things, he thought. But you did not bring
them, old man. Now is no time to think of what you do not have. Think
of what you can do with what there is.

“You give me much good counsel,” he said aloud. “I’m tired of it.”

He held the tiller under his arm and soaked both his hands in the water
as the skiff drove forward.

“God knows how much that last one took,” he said. “But she’s much
lighter now.” He did not want to think of the mutilated under-side of
the fish. He knew that each of the jerking bumps of the shark had been
meat torn away and that the fish now made a trail for all sharks as
wide as a highway through the sea.

He was a fish to keep a man all winter, he thought. Don’t think of
that. Just rest and try to get your hands in shape to defend what is
left of him. The blood smell from my hands means nothing now with all
that scent in the water. Besides they do not bleed much. There is
nothing cut that means anything. The bleeding may keep the left from

What can I think of now? he thought. Nothing. I must think of nothing
and wait for the next ones. I wish it had really been a dream, he
thought. But who knows? It might have turned out well.

The next shark that came was a single shovel-nose. He came like a pig
to the trough if a pig had a mouth so wide that you could put your head
in it. The old man let him hit the fish and then drove the knife on
the oar down into his brain. But the shark jerked backwards as he
rolled and the knife blade snapped.

The old man settled himself to steer. He did not even watch the big
shark sinking slowly in the water, showing first life-size, then small,
then tiny. That always fascinated the old man. But he did not even
watch it now.

“I have the gaff now,” he said. “But it will do no good. I have the
two oars and the tiller and the short club.”

Now they have beaten me, he thought. I am too old to club sharks to
death. But I will try it as long as I have the oars and the short club
and the tiller.

He put his hands in the water again to soak them. It was getting late
in the afternoon and he saw nothing but the sea and the sky. There was
more wind in the sky than there had been, and soon he hoped that he
would see land.

“You’re tired, old man,” he said. “You’re tired inside.”

The sharks did not hit him again until just before sunset.

The old man saw the brown fins coming along the wide trail the fish
must make in the water. They were not even quartering on the scent.
They were headed straight for the skiff swimming side by side.

He jammed the tiller, made the sheet fast and reached under the stern
for the club. It was an oar handle from a broken oar sawed off to
about two and a half feet in length. He could only use it effectively
with one hand because of the grip of the handle and he took good hold
of it with his right hand, flexing his hand on it, as he watched the
sharks come. They were both galanos.

I must let the first one get a good hold and hit him on the point of
the nose or straight across the top of the head, he thought.

The two sharks closed together and as he saw the one nearest him open
his jaws and sink them into the silver side of the fish, he raised the
club high and brought it down heavy and slamming onto the top of the
shark’s broad head. He felt the rubbery solidity as the club came
down. But he felt the rigidity of bone too and he struck the shark
once more hard across the point of the nose as he slid down from the

The other shark had been in and out and now came in again with his jaws
wide. The old man could see pieces of the meat of the fish spilling
white from the corner of his jaws as he bumped the fish and closed his
jaws. He swung at him and hit only the head and the shark looked at
him and wrenched the meat loose. The old man swung the club down on
him again as he slipped away to swallow and hit only the heavy solid

“Come on, galano,” the old man said. “Come in again.”

The shark came in a rush and the old man hit him as he shut his jaws.
He hit him solidly and from as high up as he could raise the club.
This time he felt the bone at the base of the brain and he hit him
again in the same place while the shark tore the meat loose sluggishly
and slid down from the fish.

The old man watched for him to come again but neither shark showed.
Then he saw one on the surface swimming in circles. He did not see the
fin of the other.

I could not expect to kill them, he thought. I could have in my time.
But I have hurt them both badly and neither one can feel very good. If
I could have used a bat with two hands I could have killed the first
one surely. Even now, he thought.

He did not want to look at the fish. He knew that half of him had been
destroyed. The sun had gone down while he had been in the fight with
the sharks.

“It will be dark soon,” he said. “Then I should see the glow of
Havana. If I am too far to the eastward I will see the lights of one
of the new beaches.”

I cannot be too far out now, he thought. I hope no one has been too
worried. There is only the boy to worry, of course. But I am sure he
would have confidence. Many of the older fishermen will worry. Many
others too, he thought. I live in a good town.

He could not talk to the fish anymore because the fish had been ruined
too badly. Then something came into his head.

“Half fish,” he said. “Fish that you were. I am sorry that I went too
far out. I ruined us both. But we have killed many sharks, you and I,
and ruined many others. How many did you ever kill, old fish? You do
not have that spear on your head for nothing.”

He liked to think of the fish and what he could do to a shark if he
were swimming free. I should have chopped the bill off to fight them
with, he thought. But there was no hatchet and then there was no knife.

But if I had, and could have lashed it to an oar butt, what a weapon.
Then we might have fought them together. What will you do now if they
come in the night? What can you do?

“Fight them,” he said. “I’ll fight them until I die.”

But in the dark now and no glow showing and no lights and only the wind
and the steady pull of the sail he felt that perhaps he was already
dead. He put his two hands together and felt the palms. They were not
dead and he could bring the pain of life by simply opening and closing
them. He leaned his back against the stern and knew he was not dead.
His shoulders told him.

I have all those prayers I promised if I caught the fish, he thought.
But I am too tired to say them now. I better get the sack and put it
over my shoulders.

He lay in the stern and steered and watched for the glow to come in the
sky. I have half of him, he thought. Maybe I’ll have the luck to
bring the forward half in. I should have some luck. No, he said. You
violated your luck when you went too far outside.

“Don’t be silly,” he said aloud. “And keep awake and steer. You may
have much luck yet.”

“I’d like to buy some if there’s any place they sell it,” he said.

What could I buy it with? he asked himself. Could I buy it with a lost
harpoon and a broken knife and two bad hands?

“You might,” he said. “You tried to buy it with eighty-four days at
sea. They nearly sold it to you too.”

I must not think nonsense, he thought. Luck is a thing that comes in
many forms and who can recognize her? I would take some though in any
form and pay what they asked. I wish I could see the glow from the
lights, he thought. I wish too many things. But that is the thing I
wish for now. He tried to settle more comfortably to steer and from
his pain he knew he was not dead.

He saw the reflected glare of the lights of the city at what must have
been around ten o’clock at night. They were only perceptible at first
as the light is in the sky before the moon rises. Then they were
steady to see across the ocean which was rough now with the increasing
breeze. He steered inside of the glow and he thought that now, soon,
he must hit the edge of the stream.

Now it is over, he thought. They will probably hit me again. But what
can a man do against them in the dark without a weapon?

He was stiff and sore now and his wounds and all of the strained parts
of his body hurt with the cold of the night. I hope I do not have to
fight again, he thought. I hope so much I do not have to fight again.

But by midnight he fought and this time he knew the fight was useless.
They came in a pack and he could only see the lines in the water that
their fins made and their phosphorescence as they threw themselves on
the fish. He clubbed at heads and heard the jaws chop and the shaking
of the skiff as they took hold below. He clubbed desperately at what
he could only feel and hear and he felt something seize the club and it
was gone.

He jerked the tiller free from the rudder and beat and chopped with it,
holding it in both hands and driving it down again and again. But they
were up to the bow now and driving in one after the other and together,
tearing off the pieces of meat that showed glowing below the sea as
they turned to come once more.

One came, finally, against the head itself and he knew that it was
over. He swung the tiller across the shark’s head where the jaws were
caught in the heaviness of the fish’s head which would not tear. He
swung it once and twice and again. He heard the tiller break and he
lunged at the shark with the splintered butt. He felt it go in and
knowing it was sharp he drove it in again. The shark let go and rolled
away. That was the last shark of the pack that came. There was
nothing more for them to eat.

The old man could hardly breathe now and he felt a strange taste in his
mouth. It was coppery and sweet and he was afraid of it for a moment.
But there was not much of it.

He spat into the ocean and said, “Eat that, Galanos. And make a
dream you’ve killed a man.”

He knew he was beaten now finally and without remedy and he went back
to the stern and found the jagged end of the tiller would fit in the
slot of the rudder well enough for him to steer. He settled the sack
around his shoulders and put the skiff on her course. He sailed
lightly now and he had no thoughts nor any feelings of any kind. He
was past everything now and he sailed the skiff to make his home port
as well and as intelligently as he could. In the night sharks hit the
carcass as someone might pick up crumbs from the table. The old man
paid no attention to them and did not pay any attention to anything
except steering. He only noticed how lightly and how well the skiff
sailed now there was no great weight beside her.

She’s good, he thought. She is sound and not harmed in any way except
for the tiller. That is easily replaced.

He could feel he was inside the current now and he could see the lights
of the beach colonies along the shore. He knew where he was now and it
was nothing to get home.

The wind is our friend, anyway, he thought. Then he added, sometimes.
And the great sea with our friends and our enemies. And bed, he
thought. Bed is my friend. Just bed, he thought. Bed will be a great
thing. It is easy when you are beaten, he thought. I never knew how
easy it was. And what beat you, he thought.

“Nothing,” he said aloud. “I went out too far.”

When he sailed into the little harbour the lights of the Terrace were
out and he knew everyone was in bed. The breeze had risen steadily and
was blowing strongly now. It was quiet in the harbour though and he
sailed up onto the little patch of shingle below the rocks. There was
no one to help him so he pulled the boat up as far as he could. Then
he stepped out and made her fast to a rock.

He unstepped the mast and furled the sail and tied it. Then he
shouldered the mast and started to climb. It was then he knew the
depth of his tiredness. He stopped for a moment and looked back and
saw in the reflection from the street light the great tail of the fish
standing up well behind the skiff’s stern. He saw the white naked line
of his backbone and the dark mass of the head with the projecting bill
and all the nakedness between.

He started to climb again and at the top he fell and lay for some time
with the mast across his shoulder. He tried to get up. But it was too
difficult and he sat there with the mast on his shoulder and looked at
the road. A cat passed on the far side going about its business and
the old man watched it. Then he just watched the road.

Finally he put the mast down and stood up. He picked the mast up and
put it on his shoulder and started up the road. He had to sit down
five times before he reached his shack.

Inside the shack he leaned the mast against the wall. In the dark he
found a water bottle and took a drink. Then he lay down on the bed.
He pulled the blanket over his shoulders and then over his back and
legs and he slept face down on the newspapers with his arms out
straight and the palms of his hands up.

He was asleep when the boy looked in the door in the morning. It was
blowing so hard that the drifting-boats would not be going out and the
boy had slept late and then come to the old man’s shack as he had come
each morning. The boy saw that the old man was breathing and then he
saw the old man’s hands and he started to cry. He went out very
quietly to go to bring some coffee and all the way down the road he was

Many fishermen were around the skiff looking at what was lashed beside
it and one was in the water, his trousers rolled up, measuring the
skeleton with a length of line.

The boy did not go down. He had been there before and one of the
fishermen was looking after the skiff for him.

“How is he?” one of the fishermen shouted.

“Sleeping,” the boy called. He did not care that they saw him crying.
“Let no one disturb him.”

“He was eighteen feet from nose to tail,” the fisherman who was
measuring him called.

“I believe it,” the boy said.

He went into the Terrace and asked for a can of coffee.

“Hot and with plenty of milk and sugar in it.”

“Anything more?”

“No. Afterwards I will see what he can eat.”

“What a fish it was,” the proprietor said. “There has never been such
a fish. Those were two fine fish you took yesterday too.”

“Damn my fish,” the boy said and he started to cry again.

“Do you want a drink of any kind?” the proprietor asked.

“No,” the boy said. “Tell them not to bother Santiago. I’ll be back.”

“Tell him how sorry I am.”

“Thanks,” the boy said.

The boy carried the hot can of coffee up to the old man’s shack and sat
by him until he woke. Once it looked as though he were waking. But he
had gone back into heavy sleep and the boy had gone across the road to
borrow some wood to heat the coffee.

Finally the old man woke.

“Don’t sit up,” the boy said. “Drink this.” He poured some of the
coffee in a glass.

The old man took it and drank it.

“They beat me, Manolin,” he said. “They truly beat me.”

“He didn’t beat you. Not the fish.”

“No. Truly. It was afterwards.”

“Pedrico is looking after the skiff and the gear. What do you want
done with the head?”

“Let Pedrico chop it up to use in fish traps.”

“And the spear?”

“You keep it if you want it.”

“I want it,” the boy said. “Now we must make our plans about the other

“Did they search for me?”

“Of course. With coast guard and with planes.”

“The ocean is very big and a skiff is small and hard to see,” the old
man said. He noticed how pleasant it was to have someone to talk to
instead of speaking only to himself and to the sea. “I missed you,” he
said. “What did you catch?”

“One the first day. One the second and two the third.”

“Very good.”

“Now we fish together again.”

“No. I am not lucky. I am not lucky anymore.”

“The hell with luck,” the boy said. “I’ll bring the luck with me.”

“What will your family say?”

“I do not care. I caught two yesterday. But we will fish together now
for I still have much to learn.”

“We must get a good killing lance and always have it on board. You can
make the blade from a spring leaf from an old Ford. We can grind it in
Guanabacoa. It should be sharp and not tempered so it will break. My
knife broke.”

“I’ll get another knife and have the spring ground. How many days of
heavy brisa have we?”

“Maybe three. Maybe more.”

“I will have everything in order,” the boy said. “You get your hands
well old man.”

“I know how to care for them. In the night I spat something strange
and felt something in my chest was broken.”

“Get that well too,” the boy said. “Lie down, old man, and I will
bring you your clean shirt. And something to eat.”

“Bring any of the papers of the time that I was gone,” the old man said.

“You must get well fast for there is much that I can learn and you can
teach me everything. How much did you suffer?”

“Plenty,” the old man said.

“I’ll bring the food and the papers,” the boy said. “Rest well, old
man. I will bring stuff from the drug-store for your hands.”

“Don’t forget to tell Pedrico the head is his.”

“No. I will remember.”

As the boy went out the door and down the worn coral rock road he was
crying again.

That afternoon there was a party of tourists at the Terrace and looking
down in the water among the empty beer cans and dead barracudas a woman
saw a great long white spine with a huge tail at the end that lifted
and swung with the tide while the east wind blew a heavy steady sea
outside the entrance to the harbour.

“What’s that?” she asked a waiter and pointed to the long backbone of
the great fish that was now just garbage waiting to go out with the

“Tiburon,” the waiter said, “Eshark.” He was meaning to explain what
had happened.

“I didn’t know sharks had such handsome, beautifully formed tails.”

“I didn’t either,” her male companion said.

Up the road, in his shack, the old man was sleeping again. He was
still sleeping on his face and the boy was sitting by him watching him.
The old man was dreaming about the lions.